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Chile - Santiago am

Museums and history

10th Feb Santiago in the morning

PLAZA
We had a reasonable breakfast in the hotel courtyard before setting off down Av Manuel Montt (and more on him later too) to catch the metro to Plaza de Armas. Great metro system:- cheap and easy to use. We changed from Line 1 to Line 5 (there are lines, 1,2,4 and 4a branch, 5,6- no number 3) and popped up at the Plaza. I wanted to see the guard changing ceremony at La Moneda so we went along the pedestrian streets of Bandera to the Plaza de Constitution. Unfortunately they had changed the days it was on (we watched it another day), so we walked back to the Museum of Pre Columbian Art.
Centro Cultural Palacio de La Moneda cultural facility under Citizen Square, southern façade of Palacio de La Moneda, built 2004-6 by Chilean architect Cristián Undurraga with 2 main exhibition halls and minor halls: Centro de Documentación de las Artes (Arts Documentation Centre), Cineteca Nacional (National Film Archive), Digital Laboratory, restaurants, café, small shop and an art and technology room.

La Moneda Palace/ Palacio de La Moneda is the seat of the President of the Republic of Chile and General Secretariat. It occupies an entire block in downtown Santiago, in the Civic District between Moneda (North), Morandé (East), Alameda del Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins (South) and Teatinos street (West). La Moneda, originally a colonial mint (Moneda = coin) 1814-1929, was designed by Italian architect Joaquín Toesca. Construction began 1784 and it was opened in 1805. In June 1845 under president Manuel Bulnes, the palace became the seat of government and presidential residence. In 1930, a public square, Plaza de la Constitución (pic) was built in front of the palace. After the presidency of Gabriel González Videla it ceased to be a presidential residence. In the military coup d'état of 1973, the Chilean Air Force bombarded the palace. Reconstruction was completed 1981, although some bullet marks have been preserved. During the restorations, an underground office complex (bunker) was built under the front square to provide a safe escape for dictator General Augusto Pinochet. President Ricardo Lagos opened the inner courtyards to the public during certain hours of the day. Lagos also re-opened Morandé 80 gate (used by Chilean presidents to enter the palace, eliminated during the restoration as not being in the original plans, but restored for its symbolism as the gate through which Chilean Presidents entered La Moneda as ordinary citizens). It was also the gate through which the body of President Allende was taken out after the 1973 coup. Free guided tours of the palace are available at the La Moneda website and are given in several languages. The Palacio de la Moneda is neoclassical with Roman Doric influences. The building is listed by UNESCO.

Its main façade faces Moneda Street, and its rooms are distributed along the transverse and longitudinal axes forming several patios; Patio de los Cañones (entrance hall); a covered patio; Patio de los Naranjos (presidential ceremonies). To celebrate the bicentenary of Chile’s independence 2010, a public square, Plaza de la Ciudadanía (Citizens Square) was constructed on the south side of the palace down to the Avenida Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins or “Alameda”. Designed by Undurraga Devés Arquitectos, the Plaza has been called “one of the most important public works in the last century”. Paths leading down from the plaza give access to the underground Palacio de La Moneda Cultural Centre.
Some buildings on the way; Palacio de la Alhambra http://www.snba.cl/paginas/palacio.htm; Palacio de los Tribunales de Justicia de Santiago/ Courts of Justice of Santiago (right) is the building housing the Supreme Court of Chile, the Court of Appeals of Santiago, and the Court-martial Court of the Chilean Army, Chilean Air Force and Carabineros de Chile. It occupies a full block-front of Compañía Street between Bandera and Morandé Streets. The building diagonally faces the Palacio de la Real Aduana, which houses the Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino, and Montt Varas Square sits in front. The building, which is opposite the Ex Congreso Nacional, was built in two phases between 1905 and 1930 in the neoclassical style. The earlier, western portion of the building was completed in 1911. The main entrance to the building is framed by a two-tiered portico that is supported by one storey-high Doric columns on the lower level and two-story-high Ionic columns on the upper level. The portico is crowned by a triangular pediment containing the figure of a condor standing on an open book with the word LEX (Latin for law) sculpted over it. The building has a three-story arcade, which is parallel to the main facade and features a glass skylight. Ornamental details include caryatids holding bronze swords made by the sculptor Coll y Pi and a stained glass window made in Munich, Germany by Franz Mayer.

Museo Chileno De Arte Precolombino http://www.precolombino.cl/en/]
The Museum of Pre-Columbian Art exhibits the rich cultural history of Central and South America. Through rooms of art, sculptures, textiles, jewellery, and other artefacts, we got a great feel for Chile’s rich cultural past, and that of the Americas as a whole. The rooms are spacious, well lit, and the displays well constructed. At Bandera 361 it was centrally located in the heart of Santiago’s historical district, a block from the Plaza de Armas. Created by Sergio Larraín García-Moreno, a Chilean avant-garde designer, who after studying in Europe began collecting the art of the Americas and wanted to display it to the public, the museum officially opened in December 1981. The Museum is housed in the stunning Palacio de la Real Aduana. Beginning with the Paleo-Indians who first entered and inhabited the continent, migrating through the Americas, south to the lush landscapes of Central and South America, the museum traces the Americas through its various cultures. Prior to European colonisation, these Pre-Columbian cultures and civilisations flourished and established urban settlements and complex societal hierarchies, including notable civilisations such as Aztec, Maya, Inca, Toltec and Olmec. On a side note, knowing Machu Picchu, we noted the figurines of Coqueras (Coca chewers). Although some civilisations had long since ceased by time Europeans arrived, archaeology has uncovered their history. With the Europeans, starting with Christopher Columbus, came the decline of native populations, mostly from disease, but also murder and exploitation. The museum displays artefacts by Cultural Area; Mesoamerica, Caribbean, Amazonian, Central Andes, Southern Andes. We started at the top floor (Mesoamerica) and worked our way down to the textiles room, then the bottom floor, which is ancient Chilean artefacts, organised by Northern and Southern Cultures.
Highlights included the Chinchorro mummies of Northern Chile, and elaborate quipus.
We enjoyed the darkened textile room through revolving doors. This impressive room had interactive drawers to open and view the contents. The room has a timing system for lighting, to preserve the textiles. $4.500 CLP The museum was excellent, well laid out and with informative labels in Spanish and English. I found the artefacts relating to Chilean cultures particularly interesting, especially the “power” or chieftain symbols. As it was arranged, we began with the Mexican peninsula.
Mexico
Olmec culture 1200 – 200 BC (Middle Formative 900 - 400 BC La Venta phase)
Nayarit Culture 500BC-500AD.
Chupícuaro far north 500 BC-200 AD
Guerrero ‘Culture’ c400BC-1AD
Colima culture 200 BC-500 AD
Veracruz 100-500 AD
Maya- Maya Jaina 300-600 AD, Maya Ulua 600-900 AD; Maya Classic 1100-1600
Zapotec 500BC-150AD, then Mixtec 900-1500 AD “Cloud people”
El Arbolillo and Zacatenco led to Tlatilco 1500-500 BC, then Teotihuacán culture 1-700 AD (Early Classic c200 AD; Classic 300-500 AD; Late Classic 650-750 AD), Toltec 800-1100 AD (Classic Period 900 AD) and Aztec 1200-1520 AD (all around Lake Texacoco)

Mexican peninsula
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Olmec. ‘Baby’ figurine (left) 1200 - 900 BC. Human figure in obsidian (centre) and stone baby (right) Middle Formative 900 - 400 BC La Venta phase.
1. The Olmec culture (1200 BC – 200 AD) developed in the Mexican states of Veracruz and Tabasco, a humid area with rivers, lagoons and marshes in a leafy tropical forest, and animals such as jaguars, tapirs, wild boars and monkeys. At its height, the influence of this culture extended through Mesoamerica. Agriculture was of maize, beans and pumpkins, using slash and burn. Olmec statues, particularly the monumental heads of stone and the ceramic figures known as "baby face" demonstrate great mastery, in addition to establishing key points of the art style that characterises this culture; sinuous and straight lines, faces with ripped and almond eyes with flat noses and open nostrils. In some cases the mouths have deformations similar to the "cleft lip" or feline characteristics, such as a jaguar snout. The finishing techniques were polishing, and incision, often with red or white pigments. They achieved remarkable mastery in mural painting, probably used ritually, of people with the face profile and body front, holding objects and surrounded by symbols. Not much is known about the Olmec social organisation. It is likely it was a theocracy in which priests held political and religious power over a large mass segregated between nobles, skilled artisans and peasants. The Olmec worshipped ancestors, natural elements, like the sun and rain and various animals (especially the snake and jaguar). The cult of the jaguar is shown in human figures with feline features. Human sacrifice was common, based on a cyclical vision of the processes of life in which it was necessary to destroy something to create something. Olmec society developed as the first urban society of Mesoamerica. Initially, settlements were small towns of peasants, without social complexity, but numerous. Around 1200 BC the urban centres San Lorenzo, La Venta and Tres Zapotes developed, characterised by villas and satellite centres with monumental architecture and art that represents a complex social hierarchy. Possibly each town functioned as a city-state, relatively independent, but with features in common. Olmec origins were probably the highlands of Oaxaca, south of Veracruz or north Tabasco. Olmec influence can be seen in almost all Mesoamerica, especially in societies that lived in the same period, which implies a fluid exchange of both resources and aesthetic concepts. Olmec was undoubtedly the most influential culture in all of Mesoamerica's cultural development, since it laid down both aesthetic and ideological foundations used and reused by later societies, up to Spanish times.
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Nayarit “The Guard” 500BC-500AD. A ceramic tomb statue from Mexico’s western coast; these statues served as guardians for the dead, with weapon in hand and trance on face.
2. Nayarit Culture 500BC-500AD. The Nayarit developed on the western coast of Mexico in tropical rainforests with abundant rivers, streams and lakes. Nayarit ceramics were made with a variety of production and finishing techniques. Negative and positive paintings were used for decoration. Human images are quite life-like, but body shapes are often elongated or stylised. The figurines point to some aesthetic aspects of Nayarit culture, such as cranial deformation, nose ornaments, pendants, necklaces, and ornate clothing. Notable figures include females holding ceramic vessels, sitting down, crouching, or reclining. Animals are rare, but those that have been found are often of dogs. Little is known of their social organisation, but they are thought to have lived in local chiefdoms with shamans holding positions of respect. Nayarit elite were buried in complex tombs of a chamber at the bottom of a deep pit. Family members were buried in the same chamber, accompanied by grave goods of ceramic vessels and sculptures. Of particular note are the Nayarit’s statues of warriors and dogs left to protect and guide the deceased to the afterlife. Archaeological evidence in the Ixtlán area suggests that the Nayarit lived in small villages of several families. Clay models of dwellings attributed to this culture show densely populated settlements containing structures ranging from simples designs with two walls and a ceiling to two-storey houses with multiple rooms. The Nayarit had close ties with the neighbouring Jalisco and Colima people, as shown by the many similarities among their ceramic traditions and burial rites. The present-day Huichol people are their descendants. Related to later Aztecs.
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Guerrero, Mixtec and Aztec masks; lower left is Mixtec (c.300 AD), top right from related Aztecs, in Early Classic Teotihuacan style c200-500 AD, bottom right from Teotihuacan Classic 300-1000 AD. At the top left is a mask of the related Guerrero culture c400-0 BC (from the signature site of Guerrero).
3. The territory of the Guerrero ‘Culture’ (c400BC-1AD) was the southwest coast of modern-day Mexico, flanked by the Western Sierra Madre. The region consists of isolated valleys, making communications difficult. It is an area of frequent seismic activity and landslides. The Guerrero people were not a specific culture, but a number of groups that shared characteristics. It is believed the peoples of the Guerrero region lived in small settlements of farmers, inhabiting each valley independently. The Guerrero produced a large quantity of ceramics. Vessels with stirrup handles were common, suggesting links with cultures in Central and South America. They produced ceramic figurines with Teotihuacan influences. They worked with gold, silver, and copper, but are best known for their sculptures, masks and architectural models made of the local hard rock of various colours. The most characteristic figures are those of the Mezcala style, consisting of small, highly stylised and delicately crafted human figurines. Other common stone subjects included animals such as dogs, turtles, frogs, coyotes, birds, felines and insects; tools, such as axes, awls, and knives; and body ornaments, such as nosepieces, rings, bracelets, and chest pieces. Standing or prostrate humans are common, and some representations of human body parts, such as arms, hands, legs, heads, and fingers with fingernails. Although groups of the Guerrero culture developed independently, they shared many cultural elements. They displayed influences from the Olmec, Teotihuacán, and Mayan cultures.
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Colima Culture. Female (mujer) statue from Colima, Mexico Formative Period 200 BC-300AD and Dancing circle 300 BC-300 AD (Formative-Classic period) from Colima, Mexico
4. Colima Culture. Little is known about the early history of the Colima area except the Otomi, Nahuatl, Tolteca, Chichimeca and Tarasca cultures flourished there 2000 BC- 1000 AD. When the Spanish arrived in 1525, most of West Mexico was controlled by the Kingdom of Tzintuntzan. The Purépecha (Tarascans to the conquistadors), occupied the area 1100-1530 AD along with Colima Indians, who are closely related. King Colimán, leader of the Colimas, waged a successful war against the Purépechas just before the Spanish arrival. The Colima culture 500BC- 500AD occupied a rugged, low-lying coastal region carved by valleys, each with its own ecology and a humid climate. Little is known about their subsistence, as most information comes from the excavation of cemeteries, not residential sites. They practiced irrigation farming, which allowed them to live in large groups in relatively independent villages and urban centres. Colima ceramics display a wide variety of figures and shapes, but little variation in technique. Most pieces have a burnished red finish and some are decorated with orange or white incisions. Moulded figures are common, especially of plants, animals (mainly dogs) and seashells. Humans typically feature dwarfs and hunchbacks, and a few female forms. Many figures have “coffee-bean” eyes and are dressed in finely detailed traditional attire. Little is known of Colima stonework; only a few mace heads, small masks and figurines have been found. They practiced weaving, and used metallurgy to make needles, axes, rattles, nose rings and ear ornaments. Little is known about the Colima’s social order, but shamans or priests may have occupied positions of importance. Figurines resembling warriors and prisoners with hands tied point to ceremonial war. The majority of ceramic pieces are grave goods found in tombs of high rank. The Colima buried their dead in family tombs up to 30 m deep, some with multiple chambers, accompanied by a wide variety of grave goods, including ceramic statuettes of armed men, which served as symbolic guardians. Ceramic sculptures of dogs were common grave goods, and are believed to be the emissaries of Xolotl, the god of death. Some larger villages had ceremonial centres that also served as trading hubs/ markets. Their dwellings were made of perishable materials such as palm leaves, wood, and mud but their temples had foundations of earth and stone. The history of the Colima people is not well known, but, like many Mesoamerican cultures, the Colima displayed some stylistic elements that link them with the ancient Olmecs.
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Maya. Pedestal Censer of a Mayan noble AD600-900, used to ritually burn incense or copal resin. Often found interred in walls. Many were found at the ceremonial centre of Palenque depicting the sun god Kinich Ahau (large eyes, aquiline nose, T-shaped tooth); platter Late Classic period 600- 900 AD Coyotlatelco-Texcalac Phase; Centre- female figurine Late Classic 700-900 AD Coyotlatelco-Texcalac phase; at back part of female figurine Classic 600 - 700 AD; to right a fat man Late Classic 700 - 900 AD; Clay man from central Veracruz Late Classic Period AD 800-900, left at rear beaker Classic 600-800 AD Copador style; front left beaker Late Classic Coyotlatelco-Texcalac 700- 900 AD; far right pot Classic 300- 700 AD. Central beaker 300-900AD shows Popol Vuh
5. Maya. The upper segment of these Maya polychrome ceramic vessels contains glyphs that characterise the depicted scene, but the signs merely enunciate a set of symbols that confound immediate comprehension. Pictorial representations of this nature are inscribed in Mayan funerary art and often allude to mythical episodes related to life after death. Other times, however, scenes refer to facts or characters. On the central beaker are four young men in a war or ritual hunting, with strokes that evoke the skin of the jaguar or chacbolay. In Mayan mythology, Hunahpu is the Blowgun and Universal hunter, who brings food to men. The number and age of the characters refers to accounts in the sacred book. "These are the names of the first men created and formed: the first man was Balam Quitzé, the second Balam Ahab, the third Mahucutah and the fourth Iqui Balam". In the Popol Vuh, there are numerous allusions to the number 4 and to 2 pairs of young people or twins.
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Teotihuacan; central figure is from the Late Classic period 650- 750 AD Metepec phase. The smooth bowl in background is Mixtec.
6. The valley of Teotihuacán culture (1-600 AD) is northwest of Lake Texcoco, in the highlands of Mexico. In the Teotihuacán valley, previous cultures, Cuanalán and Tezocuya developed, giving rise to a certain social complexity with astronomical and agricultural knowledge, as well as to an agricultural warrior economy that laid the foundations for the emergence of Teotihuacán. Teotihuacan influence was strongly felt throughout Meso-america, as far as to remote Veracruz, Guerrero, Oaxaca and the Mayan region. It is thought that the city gained migrants from different villages, becoming a cosmopolitan nucleus. The name of Teotihuacán in Nahua means "place where the gods are born", which demonstrates the relevance this culture had in later periods. Despite the relative aridity this territory is well endowed with water from three rivers that flow into the lake and are still used to irrigate the fields. The Teotihuacan economy was based on extensive agriculture, especially of maize, beans and chillies, to support a large urban population. Extensive irrigation systems were built that included dams to store water and the first chinanpas (artificial islands) used as areas of cultivation. Along with agricultural production, trade was an important activity for the economy of this society, accessing resources from great distances. The presence of nearby volcanic hills allowed them to exploit raw materials such as obsidian for knives, razors and projectile points, as well as other stones for building or tools. The architecture reached astounding levels of perfection, not only because of the astronomical orientation of its buildings and streets, but also in its shapes and settings. Stone heads of gods, columns of bas-reliefs with symmetrical designs and decorations of monumental size, are examples. Delicate masks with inlays of semi- precious stones or representations of animals with mythical characteristics are important. Stone braziers with the image of the god Huehueteotl (the old God of Fire) are common and despite their schematic lines, reach great expressiveness. In pottery they achieved mastery in the decorated polychromatic incensario and braziers with lids. The representations of heads of gods or priests with huge headdresses are characteristic and indicate the perfection acquired by master potters. Among the techniques used are moulds, pastillage, modelling, incision and post-firing painting in bright red, green blue and yellow. Teotihuacans mural art is a faithful reflection of the flora and fauna, including insects. The state was governed by nobles and priests who possessed knowledge of astronomy, economics, religion, war and art. Further down were traders and skilled artisans, who produced goods of high value for the upper classes. At the base were peasants, who lived in modest sectors of the city or small villages near the fields. Teotihuacán was the first city of America with more than 100,000 inhabitants. Each street and temple was aligned with certain astronomical dates, giving the entire urban complex a ritual and cosmic order. The city possessed different ceremonial centres crowned by pyramids to the gods. There were merchants or artisans quarters. The growth of the city made it a meeting point for many towns that also formed their "ethnic neighbourhoods”.
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Figure of a god (?Xipe-Totec) dressed in a male flayed skin from central Veracruz Classic Period (AD 300-900).
7. Toltec. Later inhabitants of Teotihuacan and Monte Alban worshipped a flayed skin fertility god (Xipe Totec= Our Flayed Lord) and an earth goddess (Toci) of which this was an earlier incarnation. Xipe-Totec was a god of spring, fecundity and perpetual renewal of the earth. At times, he was represented in a human skin, symbol of the renewal of nature and god of sacrificed warriors. The Toltec culture (800-1100 AD) rose on the high plains of central Mexico. Their civic and religious centre was at Tula, 100 km northeast of Lake Texcoco. The Toltec covered a region of wide valleys watered by large rivers, with two climate zones, one semi-arid, and another more humid (Eastern Sierra Madre). The Toltecs had an agricultural economy of staples such as maize in large fields, watering them with a complex network of irrigation canals. Like other Mesoamerican cultures, they engaged actively in trade to obtain goods and raw materials from distant lands. Stonework was their most developed art form, many stone sculptures depicting military scenes and images of human sacrifice. A typical Toltec subject is the Chacmool, a figure seated in a relining posture, cup resting on stomach and head facing one side. The architectural friezes of Tula are noteworthy for their representations of warriors, and powerful animals such as the jaguar, coyote, and eagle, as well as the mythical feathered serpent Quetzalcoatl. Human body parts such as skulls and crossed long bones are found alongside these scenes. Toltec architecture featured columns carved as warriors with atlatls (spear-throwers), spears, shields, and butterfly-shaped breastplates. The earliest Toltec ceramic style, Coyotlatelco style, predates the founding of Tula. Classic elements of this style include red and dark brown for decorating ceramic vessels. The Mazapa ceramic style developed later and spread throughout Mesoamerica as the Toltecs expanded political dominion. Characteristic Mazapa vessels are bowls decorated in the interior with straight or wavy lines and painted bright red. Toltec potters worked in Plumbate style, which originated in Guatemala and is one of the few New World ceramics that featured glazing, achieved by firing pieces with mineral paints in high temperature kilns. The Toltec State was formed from a number of tribal groups, principally the Toltec- Chichimec group. Toltec society was highly stratified, but its most powerful leaders were not priests, as in earlier cultures, but military chiefs organised into orders named after their totem animals; coyote, jaguar, eagle. Gods such as Quetzalcoatl were important and human sacrifice was performed to slake his thirst for blood. Prisoners of war were the usual sacrificial victims, and their skulls were later put on public display in a wooden structure called a tzonpantli. The Toltec inhabited fortified towns built around civic- ceremonial buildings, a main square with a central altar, surrounded by palaces, stepped pyramids and ballcourts. Tula city was built on a promontory overlooking the river, easily defended. The city was divided by streets, and social differences reflected in the size, distribution, and building materials used in homes, which ranged from those built on residential platforms near the ceremonial sector to three-room dwellings set around a central L-shaped patio, where domestic and daily ritual activities were conducted. Toltec culture is thought to have emerged from the amalgamation of several ethnic groups from northern Mexico. The Toltec-Chichimec group (from modern Jalisco and Zacatecas) marked the boundaries of the ancient Teotihuacan world. Their conquests gave them dominion over Mexico up to Guatemala/ Yucatan, and marked the birth of militarism in Mesoamerica. The reasons for the decline of the Toltec culture are unclear, but it is known that Toltec groups later emigrated, intermingling with local groups and bringing their ideas to prominent cultures including the Mayas and Aztecs.

Top of South America (from Nicaragua to Columbia/ Ecuador)
In Columbia: Capulí c500 BC-500 AD, Bahia 500BC-500 AD, Jama-Coaque 600 BC-400 AD cultures
In Ecuador: Valdivia Culture c6000-3300BC, Tuncahuán 3500-1800 BC, Machalilla c.2300-1800 BC heirs of Valdivia, Chorrera c1800-300BC (Late classic 1000-300 BC) descended from Machalilla, La Tolita culture 500 BC- 500 AD heirs of the Chorrera, Vicus culture 0-500 AD also from Chorrera, Veraguas 700-1530 AD Manta culture 800-1532 AD
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Capulí. Masks c500 BC-500 AD. Desarrollos Region.
1. The Tolita, Jama-Coaque and Bahia cultures flourished along Ecuador's coast c1500 AD, worshipping feline-like deities. The people of the Capulí culture (500 BC-500 AD) inhabited the highlands of Ecuador and Colombia, a mountainous region over 3000 m high with a temperate climate and abundant rainfall during the wet season, feeding many rivers from its high peaks. The Capulí economy was based on the cultivation of maize, complemented by hunting. Guinea pig bones at some sites suggest that they may have domesticated it for food. Trade played an important economic role, allowing them to obtain goods and resources from distant regions, including the coast and Amazon rainforest. Capulí chiefs sold coca leaves, a significant source of wealth. Artistically, the Capulí are best known for ceramics, relatively simple in design but elaborately decorated. Vessels were decorated with black on red relief painting with repeated geometric designs such as rhomboids and triangles; incisions and modelling were also used. The most common vessels are pedestal plates, dishes with anthropomorphic figures integrated into the base (as bearers), anthropomorphic vessels, and anthropomorphic figures seated on stools with flat bases. Their life-like ceramic figures give an idea of the clothing, hairstyles, headdresses, and body paint used by the culture. Animal figures were also made, often with anthropomorphic features. Particularly noteworthy are the Capulí clay masks, remarkable for their detailed features and subtle expressions. Many figures take the form known as coqueros (coca-chewers), with one cheek puffed out from the wad of coca in the mouth. The Capulí also worked with metals to make nose rings, nipple covers, and musical instruments, decorated with geometric or zoomorphic figures such as monkeys or felines. The level of expertise achieved by some craftsmen suggests that specialists worked full time on such tasks. The Capulí may have been organised into a number of chiefdoms, each controlling a defined territory. The Capulí used two forms of burial. Some individuals were buried in shallow graves with grave goods of little value, while others were buried in tombs up to 40 m deep, with a lateral chamber containing three or more bodies accompanied by a rich array of grave goods, including high quality ceramics and gold artefacts. Some tombs were covered with large artificial mounds known as tolas, made from layers of earth packed down and burned, perhaps during the funeral rites. Music is believed to have played a key role in Capulí ceremonies, judging by the large number of gold bells and rattles found, and ceramic ocarinas that reproduce the shapes of seashells. Capulí dwellings were made of perishable materials and located on the summits of the artificial hills (tolas), widely separated by open areas and situated around a larger mound that may have held a temple. The mounds were built in stages and took a variety of forms and sizes. The Capulí were descended from groups that inhabited the same territory in earlier times. During the 15th century, the Capulí made contact with the Inca, and in the 16th century with Spanish conquistadors.
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Chorrera. Funerary pot Late Pre-classic 1000-300 BC.
2. Valdivia CultureThe oldest American ceramics appeared 6000 years ago in the tropical lowlands of Intermediate/ Amazon area, generally associated with the start of sedentary agricultural life. Villagers from Ecuador's Valdivia Culture c3300BC made domestic vessels imitating plant shapes and the first statues. Their Machalilla (c.2300BC) and Chorrera heirs c1800-300BC perfected the craft.
3. The Chorrera culture inhabited south Ecuador. The Guayas River and its tributaries provided them with both resources and transport. The Chorreras grew maize, gathered shellfish, hunted and picked wild fruit and nuts. Judging by ceramic images, they collected seafood from reed rafts and wooden canoes. Trade over water and land routes played an important role in their economy, especially the exchange of exotic stones such as obsidian, lapis lazuli, and rock crystal, from which they made bead necklaces and other artefacts. Some raw materials may have been brought from regions as distant as Peru. The Chorrera produced highly polished ceramics with a mirror-like sheen, decorated with red, black, smoked, and yellow-white designs, separated with dots and incisions. These negatively painted pieces had an iridescent finish. Their vessels have realistic, life-like representations of animals, plants, fruit, buildings, and humans. The humans are represented in round, voluminous shapes, with headdresses or turbans (maybe a status symbol in Chorrera society). Many ceramic forms were inherited from the earlier Machalilla culture, but new forms included the whistle bottle, which makes a sound when air is blown over the neck or when the liquid inside is swirled around. Small, smooth, solid ceramic figures are ascribed to this culture, as well as larger hollow figures with asymmetrical decorations. The Chorrera probably lived in relatively small groups of 100-200 individuals related by kinship or reciprocity. The restricted use of earpieces and the presence of particular types of ceramics in certain gravesites, suggests a society with ranks. Little is known about the rituals of the Chorrera, although coca chewing played an important role, as containers have been found that were used for storing llipta, an alkaline substance that was mixed with the coca leaf. Chorrera settlements were located on bluffs overlooking tributaries of the Guayas River, but houses were built from perishable materials. Chorrera culture was descended from the Machalilla culture, but certain features of their ceramic style such as colours and motifs suggest a link with the Ocós culture of Mesoamerica.
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La Tolita. Female figurine Tolita culture 500 BC- 500 AD
4. The La Tolita culture (500 BC- 500 AD) extended along the coast of Ecuador to Colombia, at the southern edge of the tropical coast, beyond which the landscape becomes arid. It is an area of dense rainforests, high rainfall and abundant wildlife, crossed by broad, navigable rivers with many islands at their mouths. La Tolita’s economy was based on growing corn and yucca, hunting and using marine resources. Being located at the mouths of large rivers flowing from the Andes positioned them favourably for trading with mountain groups, even those in the jungle on the other side of the Andes. La Tolita potters used sandy, greyish clay to make jugs, pitchers, cups, tripods and yucca graters. The many figurines they made were finely crafted and realistically detailed, almost all having nose rings, ear ornaments, and other bodily ornaments. Notable are their statues of mythical beings, including some half human-half animal. Incense burners are a distinctive item, some very large. They worked with semiprecious stones (emeralds, quartz, agate and turquoise), which they mounted in gold and silver pieces. The metalworkers of La Tolita were the first in the world to work with platinum. La Tolita society was probably divided into classes; peasants, metalworkers, craftspeople and at top a ruling elite, who governed the group’s different districts from urban centres. Judging by images on ceramics and metalwork, they worshipped a wide range of mythical beings, notably big cats, serpents, primates and frogs. Ceramic representations of erotic scenes may have been associated with fertility and sexual initiation rites. They buried their dead with jewels, clothing, and implements. Little is known about their settlements, although at least two major centres have been identified, at Bahía de Tumaco (Colombia) and Isla de La Tolita (Ecuador). The latter contains many man-made mounds, known as tolas, which gave rise to the name La Tolita. They built their dwellings and temples on the top of these mounds. Many of them lived along the coast and riverbanks, building homes of perishable materials. The origins of La Tolita are strongly rooted in local traditions, especially the Chorrera. They were in contact with the Jama-Coaque, Bahía and other cultural groups of Ecuador/ Colombia, and helped disseminate metallurgy and metalworking to Central America.

Andean
Chavín culture 1000-400BC, Cupisnique style (Horizonte) 700- 400 BC followed by Moche culture 1-800 AD subsumed by the Wari Empire, but followed by the Chimú culture 900-1400 AD.
Parakas people 700-100 BC; the Nazcas culture 100-700 AD were their heirs.
Tiwanaku culture 100-1100 AD., rivals to the Wari Empire 550-1000 AD
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1. Chavin. Peru. The Chavín culture 100-400BC is named after the site of Chavín de Huántar, located in a fertile valley in Peru, at an altitude of 3135m. Chavín economy was based on agriculture. Although it is not known how sophisticated their irrigation systems were, the variety of domesticated plants (maize, beans, squash, potatoes, quinoa) shows a deep knowledge of agricultural techniques. They complemented their farming with marine resources, and hunting. Judging by their middens, llamas played an important role for both diet and transport. The word ‘Chavín’ also refers to an artistic style characterised by symmetry, repetition, curved lines, metaphorical imagery, and motifs such as crossed fangs, the “eccentric eye”, dilated nostrils, and claws. Much of the intricate, stylised imagery of the Chavín style was inspired by the flora and fauna of the Amazon rainforest, crocodiles, felines, snakes, eagles, and plants. This style was expressed in different media with a high degree of complexity. It reached its highest expression in Chavín stonework; enormous temples, sculpted standing stones and obelisks with figures half man-half feline, including Lanzón, Estela Raimondi, and Obelisco Tello. This preference for working in stone is reflected in Chavín pottery, which is stone-like in appearance, grey and decorated by incision. Chavín ceramics are remarkable for their technical quality, as well as an emphasis on shaped decorations and in a few exceptional pieces, the application of coloured pigments. Vessels include fruit-shaped bottles with stirrup handles, bowls, and simple bottles. It is believed this was a mother culture (ie no outside influence), the first in the Andes. Chavín society was based on kinship bonds, bloodlines and clans, the status of which was linked to their closeness to a common ancestor, possibly mythological in origin. Individuals may have been skilled in particular tasks, but activities were organised by priests in a theocratic society, in which religious rituals endowed rulers with the privilege and prestige necessary to wield political control. Chavín deities spread through the Central Andes. A feline is a central figure, and its presence is seen in human forms that hold sceptres adorned with large curved fangs and serpents wound around their heads and waists and sporting the claws of birds of prey, giving snakes and eagles their place among the animals that lent their powers to these divinities. Calancha reports that the God Pachacamac sowed the teeth of his half-brother, whom he had killed in an act of jealousy and of them was born corn, whose seeds resemble the teeth. He then planted the ribs and other bones, from which came the cassava and other tubers. From the flesh came the cucumbers, pacaes and other fruits and trees. Hallucinogenic plants appear in Chavín iconography, suggesting shamanism played a role in rituals. Chavín burials range from simple trenches containing skeletons, to elaborate graves covered with stones. An increase in population is reflected in more villages, generally of 20-30 dwellings of perishable materials, or less often of adobe or stones cemented with mud. The shape of these dwellings varied by region, but were generally rectangular or semicircular. Ceramic models have been found depicting houses with pitched roofs, possibly a style used in the mountains, as the low rainfall on the coast would have made them unnecessary. The great innovation in this period was the monumental architecture of Chavín ceremonial sites, building complexes or temple-pyramids consisting of superimposed platforms of stone and/or conical adobe bricks. An outstanding example is the great ceremonial centre at Chavín de Huántar, which features several temples, passageways, plazas, sunken patios, and underground galleries with unusual acoustics. Some constructions were aligned with astronomical orientations. The Chavín culture represents the consolidation of several long-term cultural processes in the Andes; the invention of ceramics and agriculture, village life, and monumental architecture. The dissemination of the Chavín artistic style, mainly through textiles and ceramics, and the spread of their religious ideas, provided the cultural foundation of many societies that later arose in the Andes. Possibly Chavín de Huántar continued as a pilgrimage site until the arrival of the Spanish. Moche. Mythological beasts (begging animal centre left) and real (reclining feline which is a transition from Vicus to Moche culture), mainly Moche Intermediate Period 100-800AD
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Moche. Bowl at back left with serpent, main is a fox (zorro) drinking cup. Intermediate 100- 800 AD.
2. The Moche culture 1-800 AD inhabited the coast of northern Peru, concentrating in the valleys of Lambayeque, Chicama, Moche and Virú. This desert region is crossed by several rivers that flow to the Pacific, where marine resources are plentiful. The Moche began as an agricultural-maritime culture, but after expanding inland they focused on farming and herding. They channelled river water to irrigate extensive crops, which included cotton, maize, peanuts and beans. They raised herds of llama and domesticated dogs and guinea pigs. From the coast they obtained marine resources to use and for trade. Surplus goods were stored in silos and granaries administered by Moche authorities. The Moche produced fine ceramic, textile and precious metal pieces. Their characteristic style is in a wide range of goods such as fire-engraved gourds, wall murals, featherwork, art, body painting and tattoos. Their ceramic decoration displays a level of skill rarely surpassed, and included such techniques as incision, bas-relief with stamps, and painting on smooth surfaces. Many were made in state-run workshops that mass-produced pieces from moulds. Their ceramics came in a variety of forms and decorative styles and displayed myths and ritual motifs as well. Notable are the “portrait bottles”, moulded with the face of a well- known Moche figure. These highly detailed facial portraits reflect the Moche’s use of face paint and/or tattoos, as well as elaborate headdresses. Their expertise can be seen in everyday scenes and erotic representations. They were skilful metalworkers, using gold, copper and silver to make ear ornaments, nose rings, bracelets, necklace beads, tweezers and a variety of tools. Especially notable is the tumi or ceremonial knife, restricted to Moche officials. At its zenith, the Moche culture appears to have been organised into two independent states that controlled the north and south respectively. Both were extremely hierarchical, in which warriors held a high rank. The highest political position in Moche society seems to have been a warrior-priest, frequently represented in Moche art. Beneath this official were several social classes, including artisans, merchants, peasants, herders and fishermen. Prisoners of war were treated as slaves and often sacrificed to the gods. Moche ceramics provide detailed representations of their supernatural world, including deities, myths, sacred animals and ceremonial practices. Their deities take the form of foxes, owls, hummingbirds, falcons and felines. These figures were servants of greater gods that held human form and sported elaborate outfits and ferocious faces with crossed fangs. Tombs of important individuals were rectangular and made of adobe, with niches for offerings. The elite were buried with metal masks and a rich array of grave goods, servants and animals accompanying them; the famous “Lord of Sipán” is the most notable example. To take full advantage of the little fertile land available, the Moche located their settlements and cemeteries on non-arable land, close to hills (considered sacred). Their dwellings were of woven reeds and branches built on stone or adobe foundations, with gabled roofs. Public buildings such as pyramid temples, official residences, and fortifications were made of adobe and decorated with murals, reliefs and paintings with complex symbolism. Among the most important Moche temples are the Temple of the Sun and Temple of the Moon, trapezoidal adobe structures over 30m tall. Many of the motifs adorning early Moche ceramics were derived from the Recuay culture. These two peoples were certainly in contact, as all of the irrigation waters the Moche used flowed down from Recuay territory. In the early years, the Moche had contact with the Salinar and Gallinazo cultures. It is likely the Moche disappeared when taken by the Wari Empire, but it also suffered long periods of flooding by El Niño, which destroyed their farming infrastructure and helped precipitate their collapse. The final stage of the culture displays features that later appeared in Chimú culture.
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Parakas and Chavin. Peru. The Monkey pot is Parakas culture Late Formative 200-600 BC, centre Chavin vessel, Cupisnique style 700-400 BC, right a Late Horizonte style Chavín vessel 900- 700 BC.
3. The Parakas people inhabited valleys in Ica and Pisco on the southern coast of Peru. This desert zone faces a seacoast rich in natural resources. The Parakas were an agricultural people, growing maize, squash, cotton, beans and yucca. However, they obtained most of their food from the sea by fishing and gathering shellfish, seaweed and other products. They are known for the expertise of their medicine men, who successfully performed complicated trepanations. Parakas ceramic bottles feature bridge-handles and double necks, and many were painted with resinous pigments after firing, giving vibrant blue, yellow, red, orange, green and brown colours. Parakas craftspeople were skilled in textile making, producing multicoloured cloth of excellent quality. Their early work includes double cloth textiles and gauze embroidered with animal motifs in light blue, yellow, brown, white and black. Later, human figures begin to appear, holding severed trophy heads and weapons. We do not know how Parakas society was organised, though funerary offerings give evidence of some degree of social stratification. The cult of the dead appears to have been important to them. The bodies were placed fully clothed in a squatting position inside woven baskets wrapped with alternate layers of plain and embroidered cloth, with some funeral bundles up to 20 such layers. Between the layers of cloth they deposited offerings such as musical instruments, feather fans, combs, miniature pieces of cloth, and other items. Many pieces were covered with images of fantastic beings with feline, serpent or marine animal features, or human figures spitting out mythological animals and bearing a variety of weapons (probably deities that occupied a central place in the rites and worship of the dead). A notable figure in Parakas iconography is “the Sacrificer”, depicted holding a severed head in one hand and an axe in the other. Most Parakas settlements are seasonal camps close to the coast and at the edges of valleys, with rooms built together to form groups of houses. The stone walls were mortared with seaweed and filled in with waste and shell rubble. Later, the Parakas built larger settlements around temples made of adobe mounds. Initially, the culture was heavily influenced by the Chavín culture, although over time it acquired its own distinctive features, notably the rich polychromy of its artistic work. This polychromatic legacy left its mark in southern Peru and reached its highest expression in the Nazcas, who were the direct heirs of the Parakas tradition.
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Nasca Intermedio Temprano 400-700AD (Culture 100-700 AD)
4. The Nazca culture was located in the valleys and coast of southern Peru, around Pisco, Ica, Cañete, Acarí and the Nazca Valley. This coastal desert region is carved by narrow fertile valleys. The Nazca introduced major advances in agricultural technology, building underground aqueducts for groundwater that enabled them to water their fields in an arid environment, growing maize, squash, beans, chilli peppers and other crops. The Nazca are most famous for their geoglyphs, enormous drawings on the desert floor north. The Nazca were skilled ceramicists, renowned for their fine, complex painted imagery and especially their polychromatic motifs, some of which contain 6-7 different colours. The typical Nazca vessel was a bridge handled bottle with two spouts, often painted with domestic images such as flowers, fruit, birds, animals and insects, though some bear mythological figures or individuals with both human and animal attributes. Nazca society achieved a political complexity similar to that of Andean societies, but their central authorities were mainly priests, who organised community work and led ceremonies. A large number of skilled tradespeople served these officials, including ceramic and textile makers, astrologists, musicians and soldiers. People lived in small cities and ceremonial centres such as the Cawachi complex. The Nazca buried their dead in funerary bundles composed of several layers of blankets and clothing, inside of which they deposited ceramic vessels and other grave goods. High-ranking individuals had more complex bundles up to several dozen layers of textiles. Dismembered human heads have been found in many graves, indicating the importance of human sacrifice, apparently associated with fertility rites. The Nazca used adobe for their public buildings, especially their temples. Their dwellings were made of lengths of cane tied together. Their major centres included Cawachi in the Nazca Valley (probably ceremonial), which contains a stepped pyramid 20m high built upon a natural mound and surrounded by plazas, residences and tombs. The Nazca were direct descendants of the Parakas people, in the same territory. The Nazca copied the rich Chavín tradition, and itself had a major influence on the Wari people, who would form one of the most extensive empires of the Andean region.
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Chimu vessels. Pottery in Peru emphasised single colours (black, grey, brown) in the Chavin culture, polychromatic in the later Moche Culture, and saw a return to monochromatic with Chimu (black, grey), a conscious return to the past.
5. Chimu culture 900-1400 AD. The Chimú on the north coast of Peru, reached 1300 km at its height. With its centre of origin in the Moche river valley, this state gradually incorporated territories/ populations from the Tumbes to the Chillón valleys. Most of this territory is characterised by a very arid coastal desert, crossed by a large number of rivers bringing water from the Andes. The rivers form fertile valleys that contrast with the surrounding desert. The sea, dominated by the Humboldt current, is one of the most productive in the world, becoming one of the main sources of resources, both for the Chimú, and those who preceded/ succeeded. Paradoxically, this arid territory sometimes suffers from the "El Niño", with its aftermath of torrential rains and floods. Through aqueducts that carried water from great distances and a wide network of irrigation canals, the Chimú gained large tracts of land in the desert to grow maize, pumpkins, chilli, beans, cotton, and cassava, as well as fruit trees to obtain pacay, papayas, chirimoyas and lúcumas. They collected molluscs, crustaceans and marine algae. The fishermen went to sea in small totora boats for fishing with hooks and large rafts with nets. They practiced scuba diving to access deeper water resources. In trade for the precious goods the Chimu artisans produced, the merchants obtained potatoes, wool, hides, meat and other products from the shepherds of the sierra; coca, wood, monkeys and feathers of tropical birds. Shells of the mollusc Spondylus, originally from the distant Ecuadorian coast, were among articles traded. In Chan Chan, their capital, there were two caravan terminals, where more than 600 individuals were in charge of transporting goods to and from the city. Chimu craftsmen were skilled in art, carving wood, making mats and working in semiprecious shells and stones. From the close relations with their neighbours, the Lambayeque, who they would eventually incorporate in their empire, their goldsmiths perfected techniques to produce prestige goods, such as glass, earrings or masks, in copper, silver and gold, used especially in ceremonials by the nobles. Textile making was a prestigious and influential handicraft. Chimu pottery, although it took elements of the preceding Moche, especially the preference for bottles with shaped figures of various species, stood out for returning to the older Andean traditions. Similar to the Chavín, Chimu potters preferred their pieces had only a shiny black appearance on their surface. Chimú society was rigidly hierarchical. Political, economic and social power was concentrated in an hereditary aristocracy, under which was a class composed by smaller officials, merchants and skilled craftsmen. These two classes lived in the urban centres, strictly segregated. The nobles lived in complexes separated from the rest of the city by high walls, with restricted access. Peasants and fishermen lived on the outskirts of cities and in small villages scattered throughout the territory. Chimú rituals revolved around crop fertility, a crucial aspect in a state that, in an arid environment, depended on agriculture. Many rituals consisted of the worship of the mummies of the ruling dynasties. These rituals ranged from large mass ceremonies held in large squares, with mummies carried in procession, to private rituals in smaller enclosures. In Chimu ideology, the only way to secure the fertility of their fields was by honouring the ruling dynasties embodied in the mummies of their predecessors. Probably this was also political, since near the places where the mummies were worshiped, were great warehouses where goods were ceremonially distributed to allies or defeated enemy chiefs. Chimú culture was highly urbanised, dominated by the city of Chan Chan, one of the most important cities of antiquity, 20 km2. Each successive Chimu ruler probably built the 11 citadels that form the nucleus. Each had a set of intricate corridors, squares and enclosures, surrounded by perimeter walls up to 11m high and 600m long that left only narrow access to its interior. Each of these monumental ceremonial/ political centres was built entirely of adobe walls, with smaller spaces where rites were performed. Many walls, especially those of the large squares, have friezes of waves, fish, birds and marine motifs. Outside these segregated spaces, officials and artisans lived in modest buildings of adobe surrounding the citadels.
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Vicus. Peru. Typical Vicus architectural model of a house with a grotesque individual inside. Double roof (to deal with heavy rain) supported by posts around an airy space, diagonal lines on the body represent stairs to a hill or platform (the mounds in this culture's sites). Vicus AB (Phase Temprana); Vicus and Moche. The metal insect in front is Vicus Culture, the metal balls are Moche culture Intermediate Period 100- 800 AD (probably these were mollusc decoration for a necklace) and the shield-like piece is a Moche musical instrument c100- 800 AD)
6. The Vicus culture (0-500 AD) developed in Piura, mainly in highlands at the foot of the Andes, although it was also related to the coast and the mountain range. It is a desert area, but it has some rivers and lagoons with abundant land for cultivation and pastures for the cattle. The Vicus developed a complex hydraulic system with rainwater collectors and channels to irrigate the fields. They cultivated pumpkins, squash, corn and some fruits, as can be derived from the decoration of their pottery, complemented by livestock. They collected guano for use as fertilizer. The Vicus worked with metal to create earrings, masks, nose rings, necklace beads, rattles, plates, crowns and headdresses with sequins and feathers that produce sounds with the movement. Many items are adorned with anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, geometric, and hybrid motifs. Vicús pottery stands out for its patterned decoration and depiction of local wildlife such as deer, rodents, felines, monkeys, ducks, parrots, owls, iguanas and snakes. Some representations have characteristics of two or more animals, alluding to a mythical character. Other vessels represent humans in different activities, such as warriors, weavers or characters in unique outfits interpreted as priests. Some have erotic attitudes, perhaps related to beliefs about fertility. Judging by their frequent representation in art, warriors played a central role in society. The existence of complex craftsmanship testifies to full-time artisans. Music played an important role in their ritual life, as their burial mounds contain a large quantity of instruments, such as drums, flutes or whistle bottles. In ceramics, musicians playing antaras are one of the most common representations, appearing many times in themes alluding to funeral rites. The population was concentrated in the highlands in settlements on the small hills that dominate the valleys, composed of about 100 houses of quadrangular shape, made of mud adobe, although there are stone bases too. From the ceramic models it can be seen that they had simple walls, doors, open windows, and a simple sloping roof on wooden beams. There are also structures with only ceilings, and more complex buildings with several rooms and domes. The origins of Vicus were in cultures like Chorrera, with whom it shares aspects of the pottery tradition (technique, form and decoration) and was also influenced by other contemporary groups, such as Virú and Moche.
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Tiwanaku culture Llama, Jaguar and Vase 400-600AD (far right is most of an incense burner)
7. Tiwanaku. From the Tiwanku site, located a few km south of Lake Titicaca, the Tiwanaku culture 100-1100 AD extended its influence through Bolivia, Peru, north Argentina and north Chile. However, its nucleus was in the altiplano surrounding the lake, characterised by a hard climate and an altitude above 3400m. In spite of cycles of aridity, floods and frozen constants, the zone is rich in llama and alpaca pastures, as well as good for the cultivation of tubers. Tiwanaku grew thanks to its strategic location in the lake basin, where caravan routes converged. This position allowed it to control the trade in goods produced in zones of lower altitude, like coca, corn or ají. To deal with the impact of climate on agriculture, they built elevated crop fields, known as "ridges" or sukakollos, which avoided floods and, at the same time, gathered humidity, moderating abrupt changes in temperature and providing abundant crops. The artists of Tiwanaku were masters of stone. They constructed stone walls that fit perfectly, some with embedded or carved figures, such as the heads of Kalasasaya temple or Puerta del Sol, showing a high architectural and artistic level. Great statues carved in stone columns represent people standing in hieratic attitude. Among the most common designs that illustrate the worldview of Tiwanaku, are felines with wings, snakes with feline heads, animals with human attributes and vice versa. Particularly noteworthy is the Lord of the Sceptres' motif, a frontal figure, almost always on a stepped platform, bearing command symbols in his hands. The most typical ceramic is the kero vessel, narrow based and wide mouthed, used to make ceremonial libations, richly decorated in black, white, and orange on a red base, although some have incised motifs. Tiwanaku iconography suggests an "imperial aesthetic," an essential part of power relations, circulating abbreviated versions of these figures around the state. Tiwanaku society consisted of a ruling aristocracy leading social and political aspects, especially in the redistribution of goods produced by full-time skilled artisans and a mass of peasants. It is assumed that Tiwanaku was a theocratic state, which means that social life was dictated by rites and ceremonies. Many ceramic characters present sacred attributes that have a long-standing in the Andean world, such as intertwined feline tusks. The Lord of the Sceptres is represented in the Sun Gate and other sculptural works. Their artistic representations show the use of hallucinogens in Tiwanaku rituals, reflected clearly in their development in the San Pedro culture in the north of Chile during the period in which it had relations with Tiwanaku. Tiwanaku represents the full development of the urban pattern of life. It is a hierarchical system of settlement, from the capital, then secondary towns, such as Ojje, Pachiri or Lukurmata, then rural administrative centres and finally a large number of mounds on which peasant families made their homes. Among the most impressive architectural works of Tiwanaku, as a civic-ceremonial capital, stands the Kalasasaya, which covers an area of almost 2 hectares and includes a semi-underground temple, where the "heads claves" were embedded in the stone walls. There are two stepped pyramids, Akapana and Puma Punku. Within the motifs of Tiwanaku art, the llama occupies a place as important as the feline, falconid and caiman. The llama (back of picture) was often used in art by the indigenous artists in the region of San Pedro de Atacama.
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Most pieces are Wari 700-1100 AD apart from the pot with stylised suns decoration (Nasca Intermediate 100 BC-700 AD).
8. Wari. The capital of the Wari Empire (550-1000 AD) was located in the highlands of Southern Peru, near Ayacucho. At its height, the empire stretched from Cajamarca in the north to Arequipa in the south, from the Andean highlands to the Pacific coast, making it one of the largest Andean states in history. Wari culture displayed a high level of urban development, although in areas further from the centre a peasant village lifestyle predominated. The Wari engaged in economic and cultural exchange with other states, particularly Tiwanaku, despite the fact that relations between the two were tense. Wari agriculture relied on staples such as maize, potato and quinoa and on raising herds of llamas and alpacas. Nevertheless, this was an urban culture that directed its economy with strategic planning, making its cities the driving force behind the production and distribution of agricultural goods and manufactured wealth. Wari ceramic crafts display influences from three styles. Many of their designs are similar to those of Tiwanaku and Pukara, such as the figure of the winged shaman or the Sceptred Figure, while their most notable ceramic vessel, the twin-necked bottle, is evocative of Nazca culture. Wari ceramics are polychrome, with a highly polished surface. Some large, elaborately decorated polychrome pieces were probably used for ceremonial purposes and display the high technical expertise achieved by Wari craftsmen in large-scale production. Being an urban military culture, the Wari maintained a rigid social hierarchy. Priests and warriors occupied an important place in society and exercised their authority from its towns. It is believed the Wari state was a secular society with a warrior caste, rather than a theocratic state. However, the culture did maintain a religious structure that it imposed on the peoples it conquered, along with its economic and political customs. The Wari probably worshipped gods similar to those of the Tiwanaku, as the same iconography is found in the arts of both. The Wari were the first to develop ‘cities’ in the Andean area, great urban complexes with massive walls that protected homes, storehouses, streets, and plazas. They raised buildings for civil administration and military garrisons and their urban centres had districts for different trades such as potters and weavers. Their buildings were wide and consisted of a single floor. As a large empire, the Wari maintained a number of enclaves in different regions, such as those in the valleys of Nazca and Moquegua. The most immediate local forbears of the Wari were the Warpa culture, in the Ayacucho highlands. The Wari benefitted from early contact with the Nazca culture. As with Tiwanaku, the motifs of the Chavin found in Wari artefacts may have been introduced through Pukara. The Wari Empire expanded rapidly through military conquest and reached its zenith c650 AD, but its fall was fast. In the area of Lima, the Pachacamac culture developed its own sphere of influence to became a major rival of the Wari, and by 800 AD the Wari capital was deserted.

The central part of the second floor was dedicated to the Southern Andes, mainly Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay (although some spilled over into Chile). These were the Tafi in north Chile 300 BC-900 AD, the Ciénaga Culture of north Argentine and Chile 1-600AD, the La Aguada people of north-west Argentina to the arid far north of Chile (San Pedro de Atacama) 600-900 AD and the Santa Maria culture, again in northern Argentina / North Chile 1200-1470 AD.

South Andes
1. The Tafí culture 300BC-900 AD originated in the high plateau of Bolivia. It is probable that there were inter- ethnic contacts between Tafí and La Candelaria cultures. In the period of Regional Developments, the Tafi sites were supplanted by settlements of the Santamarian tradition, not as a cultural continuity, but as a rupture. Regarding religion, great monoliths, possibly in community ceremonies and linked to the ancestors, were located in ritual structures. However, there are also isolated monoliths inside dwellings, in fields and corrals, which could be testimony of a cult linked to agriculture. Stone and ceramic pipes with human or animal representations may have been used in these rituals to smoke psychoactive plants such as cebil. They were masters of stone sculpture, among which are large monoliths up to 3 m high, some decorated with motifs carved in bas-relief, such as stylised human faces that combine human and serpentine characters. The feline is heavily represented. Stone masks represent human faces. The pottery was monochrome and decorated with anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs using techniques such as incision, pastillaje and red slip. These ceramics maybe for rituals as they are sparse compared to simple domestic pottery.
2. Santa Maria culture 1200-1470 AD. The Santa María culture developed in a mainly dry and mountainous region, with large high plateaus. Agriculture that incorporated cultivated terraces and irrigation systems allowed Santa Maria to sustain a considerable population and even to generate surpluses that were kept in underground silos for exchanges or times of food shortages. They cultivated maize, potatoes, beans, quinoa and squash, and harvested the locust and chañar. They were excellent breeders, using different ecological niches to supply livestock forage. The availability of llamas as pack animals allowed them to develop economic and cultural exchanges. The metallurgy of copper, gold and silver were their most developed handicrafts, although this culture is especially known for quality bronze work used for the elaboration of ceremonial objects like decorated disks or bells. Copper tweezers, metal bracelets and pectorals, necklaces and badges decorated with human faces and snakes were made. The most notable pottery is the large funerary urn, profusely decorated with designs that reach a high level of abstraction and complexity, even though they insinuate figurative motifs, mainly characters with shields and serpentine designs. Santa Maria reached a great socio-political complexity, ruled by a hereditary family. There were warriors and priests, who occupied a high place in society. These characters appear to have been depicted in ceramics and metal pieces bearing distinct symbols of power, such as tunics, headdresses, weapons, or trophy heads. The designs on ceramics and metal pieces represent the symbolic importance of certain human figures and animals such as the toad, suri or Andean ostrich. Judging by their common representation, these motifs were an important part of funerary rites and worship of the dead. The first Spanish chroniclers report that the deceased were veiled for several days and then buried with costumes, ornaments, food, drinks and objects. Adult burials were in cylindrical funerary chambers, repeatedly opened to house new bodies. Many funeral urns were decorated with anthropomorphic faces with zoomorphic and geometric motifs. A few sites show urban development. The population settled on hills, plateaus or scattered along rivers. The dwellings, mainly of stone double walls, were 2/3 rectangular rooms that opened into a large courtyard. By 1430 the Inca had come into contact with this culture, bringing changes in material and socio-political aspects, although the fundamental cultural nucleus and language of these populations remained unchanged until the arrival of the European conquerors.
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Funerary Urn Santa Maria c1270; ceremonial clava Mapuche c1500

Still on the main floor was the darkened textile room. Really well done too; you could pull open the drawers to find more examples and their information. We hadn't appreciated the archaeological/ cultural value of textiles before this exhibit!

Chilean Cultures
On the lower floor of the museum were the Chilean cultures; giant Mapuche wood statues, Râpa Nui artefacts, the famous Chinchorro mummies, some amazingly complex quipu, pottery and stone tools.
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1. The Chincherro culture, 7000-1500 BC occupied the far north along the coast of north Chile/ south Peru, a region where the desert coast is extremely arid, but rich in marine resources (fish, sealions, gulls). Creeks that reach the sea bring fresh water, vegetables and shrubs. The name of this culture is from Chinchorro beach, Arica, where the first remains were found. The Chinchorro specialised in marine resources, for which they had a diverse set of tools, including hooks of cactus spine and harpoon tips with different ends for different prey. The ears of their mummies show they practised diving to great depths. They ate vegetables, and cultivated cotton and squash to make nets, bags and containers. Their art is reflected in their mummies. These had turbans of twisted vegetable or animal ropes, adorned with conch and malachite beads. The face was covered by a fine mud mask and the body wrapped with elaborate animal and/ or vegetable textiles as strips and cords, different colours at each date, but ochre and terracotta tones pre-dominate. Some mummies have totora skirts. The bodies rest on mats of vegetable fibre and animal fur, accompanied by instruments (bow, stoles, knives, harpoons) or sheets of native copper in a funeral bundle. They practised cranial deformation. They did not appear to have a social structure, living in small bands, although specialists in mummification existed. The Chinchorro Culture is the first manifestation of a cult of death / ancestor worship in arid South American, manifested in the complicated process of mummification which consisted of body dismemberment, the removal of muscles and viscera, replaced by vegetables, feathers, pieces of leather, wool fleeces and other materials. The body was reassembled with ash and clay and covered in black paint. The earliest techniques produced black mummies, with the later, simpler methods making red mummies. Then the body was covered with a layer of clay and human hair used to make a wig for the head. This process went through several stages: at first only newborns and children were mummified, using strong colours and accompanied with clay figurines. At the climax of culture (c3000 BC) all ages were mummified, mainly using red, black and coffee. In the twilight of this culture, only masks of mud were applied to bodies. In the latest phase only the innards and brain were removed and the body was reinforced with sticks rather than dismembered, then painted red. Repeated repairs to mummies suggest their use in rituals. The mummies were not buried but left flush with the surface and given their extended position, presumably were standing, forming an active part of life, perhaps as territorial marks to support the lineage from a common ancestor. A possible antecedent of this culture is Acha, c6000 BC, in Azapa valley, but they did not mummify. The Chinchorro culture is related to the Culture of Conch's Hook and Abtao, with which they share technological aspects, particularly the harpoon. The last stage of Chinchorro (c2000 BC) is intertwined with the Quiani Phase, who followed them, after a simplification of mummification.

2. The Mapuche culture (c1200-1900 AD) was the dominant culture in central Chile (and is now +90% of the indigenous population). For more on this culture see Lakes. Other cases contained Rapa nui artefacts from Easter island (For more see Easter Island), Horizonte Inka and the Diaguita Culture 1200-1470 AD.
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Mapuche artefacts- Axe, Bolas stones, stone bowl with duck-head handles c1300, ceremonial clava (sticks) c1600; Mapuche chemamüll wooden statues used to mark a grave; Rapa Nui kavakava statue; Horizonte Inka quipu c1400;
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The Diaguita, who may have come from Quechua or Aymara people (it means hill in both languages) live in the far north (Elqui) from c1000AD. Alternatively they may be descended from the Diaguita-Calchaqui people across the Andes in north Argentina, speaking Kakan (now extinct and the only dictionary lost). Most of their ceramics are small bowls, decorated in red, white and black with geometric designs and some stylised faces.

Posted by PetersF 15:17 Archived in Chile Tagged history museum chile bahia santiago archaeology nazca teotihuacan maya tiwanaku chavin chinchorro aztec nayarit veracruz valdivia moche zapotec olmec mapuche chimú guerrero toltec colima pre-columbian santa_maria chupícuaro mixtec capuli la_tolita chorrera vicus wari parakas tafi Comments (0)

Chile - Santiago pm

Plaza, Arts and Wine

10th Feb Santiago pm

After a coffee break in the museum, we headed round the corner past the Former National Congress Building of Santiago (ex Congreso Nacional), which is the former home of the Chilean Congress. Congress met in this building in central Santiago until Salvador Allende's socialist government was overthrown by Augusto Pinochet's military coup d'état on September 11, 1973.
During the Pinochet dictatorship, Congress was moved to new premises in Valparaíso; the old building was declared a national monument in 1976 and between 1990-2006 housed the ministry of foreign affairs. The Senate moved its offices in Santiago to this building in December 2000. On January 26, 2006 the Chamber of Deputies recovered its old offices. Work began on the original building under President Manuel Montt Torres (1851–1861), but the construction was not completed until 1876, during the presidency of Federico Errázuriz Zañartu. The building was destroyed by fire in 1895, rebuilt, and reopened in 1901, during the Parliamentary Era. It stands on Morandé 441 near the Blvd. Liberador Bernardo O'Higgins, partially surrounded by gardens that contain a variety of exotic trees and plant life. The eastern portion of the gardens was the former site of the Church of the Company. The building has a cross within a square plan, which creates four courtyards. It also features classical pedimented porticos with Corinthian columns on the north and east facades. The building and its gardens occupy a complete city block, which is adjacent to city blocks containing other nationally significant buildings such as the Santiago Metropolitan Cathedral, the Palacio de los Tribunales de Justicia de Santiago and the building that currently houses the Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino.
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We went around the corner to arrive at the Plaza des Armas (lit Square of Weapons and originally a military training ground), which houses several important buildings. Our first port of call was the Metropolitan Cathedral of Santiago (Catedral Metropolitana de Santiago) is the seat of the Archbishop of Santiago de Chile. Four churches have stood on this site, each destroyed by a different disaster. Construction of the neoclassical cathedral took place between 1748-1800 (architects included Toesca and Celli); with further alterations (a splendid ornate facade by the Italian architect Ignazio Cremonesi in 1906) giving its present appearance. Previous cathedrals were destroyed by earthquakes. The cathedral, in the historic centre, faces the Plaza de Armas near Palacio Arzobispal de Santiago, and close to Parroquia El Sagrario, a Catholic temple and Chilean national monument. Its Baroque decoration rivals anything in Europe. There are ornate frescos on the ceiling, chandeliers, and gilded columns. It’s also rewarding to look down; there are intricate black and white patterns made of thousands of small tiles. The crypt below the main floor is starkly plain. The austerity seems fitting. The Metropolitan Cathedral stands on the northwest corner of the Plaza de Armas, the historic heart of Santiago. Its two towers stood tall when added in 1800, but are now dwarfed by modern office buildings next to it. As we were leaving the cathedral we headed right to the Museo de Arte Sagrado religious art museum, located behind the Cathedral, with a courtyard, colonial architecture and collection of Jesuit silverware, religious paintings, sculpture, and furniture.
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Along the north side was a group of buildings. Palacio de la Real Audiencia de Santiago (Royal Court Palace or Palace of the Boxes) (centre of pic) is located in the north central area of the Plaza de Armas. The building was built 1804-07 to house the royal courts of justice. It was the work of Juan Goycolea, a pupil of Italian-born Joaquin Toesca who designed nearby La Moneda Palace and the east facade of the Cathedral in the last two decades of the 18th century. The courts sat here for 2 years until Chile's first government junta, in 1810, assembled to replace the Spanish governor. Eight years later the Chilean Declaration of Independence was solidified and the building served as the meeting place for the new congress and the seat of government until 1846, until President Manuel Bulnes moved to La Moneda Palace. The Chilean National History Museum (Museo Histórico Nacional or MHN) is located in the Palacio de la Real Audiencia. Next to (left) it is the historic Post Office or Correo Central, located on what was the land lot originally owned by Pedro de Valdivia and where he built his house. The site was occupied by a building that served as the Governor’s and later the Presidential Palace until 1846. Construction of the current building, by Ricardo Brown dates to 1881- 1908, with a rococo facade and roof. Just behind was the Cuartel de Bomberos, HQ of the city’s oldest fire brigade and the first public building in the capital to incorporate private commercial outlets in an effort to generate a more stable income for the firemen, who serve on a voluntary basis even today. We decided on a quick walk around the Plaza before lunch, finding several interesting buildings and statues, notably “Al Pueblo Indigena” by Enrique Villalobos. The impressive Municipalidad de Santiago (City Hall) caught our eye on the east side; and we spotted the famous Chess Club of Santiago (chess = ajedrez) which meets on the outdoor stage on the eastern side of the plaza. A group of dancers were busy dancing Cueca (traditional Chilean dance), quite different from any other Latin dance. Cueca is unique in its waltz-like rhythm. On the doorstep to City Hall was the equestrian statue of Pedro de Valdivia (founder of Santiago: see history). A central fountain made us feel cooler, as it was becoming quite hot. We could see a nice arcade (Galerias) along the south side, the Portal Fernández Concha, which contained a mix of cafes and snack shops. We chose one, El Rincon del Portal, to have a typical Chilean lunch of chicken and bean salad.
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BELLAS ARTES
After lunch we decided to head up towards the quieter Barrio Belles Artes area. Interestingly, as we headed along Merced we passed the Casa del Presidente Manuel Montt (Calle Merced 738), a controversial 2-term president in 1851 and 1861 who managed to annoy just about everyone, conservative and liberal! The only useful thing he did was to encourage German immigration into central Chile (Lakes District), which is why Puerto Montt is named after him. Then it was up to the beautiful Museo Belles Artes (which includes the Museo de Arte Contemporaneo), based in the relaxing green Parque Forestal. The beautiful Beaux Arts museum was free to visit and had more in than we’d originally thought. The glass roof with its interior balcony was very impressive and the side rooms had an interesting selection of artworks from the good (a few masters), indifferent (some local dignitaries paintings), avant-garde (actually quite good) to the bizarre and disturbing (some modern photos of bottoms!).
Museo Belles Artes is open Tue- Sun 10-18.45 and is free. The Chilean National Museum of Fine Arts (Museo Nacional de Belles Artes or MNBA) is one of the major centres for Chilean and South American art. Established in 1880 (the oldest in South America), the current building, the Palace of the Fine Arts (Palacio de Belles Artes), dates to 1910 and commemorates the first centennial of the Independence of Chile. It was designed by the French-Chilean architect Emile Jecquier in full-blown Beaux-arts style and sited in the Parque Forestal which was designed by Jorge Enrique Dubois, who had been trained in the gardening school of Versailles. Behind it is located the Museum of Contemporary Art (Museo de Arte Contemporáneo) of the University of Chile, also located the old School of Fine Arts (Escuela de Belles Artes). The Palacio de Belles Artes, the current home of the Museum is in Neoclassical Second Empire/ Baroque Revival, strongly reinforced with Art Nouveau details and touches of metallic structural architecture. The central entrance is through a gigantic enlarged version of Borromini's false-perspective window reveals from Palazzo Barberini, which encloses a pedimented doorway entirely surrounded by glass, a Beaux-Arts touch. Through a broken pediment the squared cupola rises to the top. The internal layout and the facade are modelled after the Petit Palais of Paris. The glass cupola that crowns the central hall was designed in Belgium and brought to Chile in 1907. The floor plan is a central axis marked by the entrance and a grand hall with a staircase to the second floor. In the grand hall, above a balcony from the second floor, there is a carving in high relief, which depicts two angels supporting a shield, located in the semi vault above the heads of two Caryatids that arise from the balcony, carved by Antonio Coll y Pi. Collections include works by Luis Vargas Rosas and Roberto Matta.
Museo de Arte Contemporáneo http://www.mac.uchile.cl/museo/mision-y-lineamientos
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Both venues of the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo (MAC), Parque Forestal and Quinta Normal are run by the Faculty of Arts of the University of Chile. As such, the Museum assumes the mission of the University: collecting pieces of cultural reality, promoting discussion and reflection about fields of human knowledge. MAC is focused on modern/ contemporary art, and has the responsibility to explore new art production, national and international, from a contemporary perspective. Over 2,800 artworks represent a historical reference. MAC has 1,000 engravings, 600 paintings, 130 drawings, watercolours, and temperas, and 80 sculptures. This includes works of prominent national artists Roberto Matta, Nemesio Antúnez, Matilde Pérez, José Balmes, and international artists Guayasamín (Ecuador), Hundertwasser (Austria), Noguchi (USA), David Batchelor (UK), and Jesús Ruiz Nestosa (Paraguay).

We collected our bags and, as we were hot AND thirsty, we walked through the Parque Forestal towards Merced to find famous Emporio La Rosa, reputedly the best ice cream in Santiago and one of the top in the world. Obviously we ordered some helados (ice cream) and a refreshing lemon drink. We then realised we were in Lastarria, so we had a quick recce of where to find Bocanariz restaurant for the night, passing the Plaza Mulato Gil de Castro and MAVI Museo de Artes Visuales/ MAS Museo Arqueológico de Santiago. The Cultural Foundation Plaza Mulato Gil de Castro (Santiago Archaeological Museum and Museum of Visual Arts) aims to conserve and promote heritage and contemporary Chilean art. The Plaza became a cultural landmark in the early 80s; an abandoned house became the Art Restoration and Conservation Laboratory. Later, alongside the Contemporary Arts Institute, art galleries, bookstores, handicraft stores and cafés were established, giving new life to the Lastarria neighbourhood. Since then, cultural activities related to arts, literature and music have developed in Plaza Mulato Gil. The building that houses MAS/ MAVI was designed by Chilean architect Cristián Undurraga Saavedra, with 6 exhibition halls on different levels connecting through a central space. Its location in Lastarria is alongside the National Museum of Fine Arts, Contemporary Arts Museum, Gabriel Mistral Cultural Centre, and Telefónica Foundation. The “Chile Indígena” travelling initiative culminated with the foundation of Santiago Archaeological Museum (MAS). In 2012, the Foundation donated the collection to the Chilean Museum of Pre-Columbian Art. MAS is now an exhibition space. Gabriela Mistral Cultural Centre (GAM) was originally built as the headquarters for the 3rd UNCTAD conference, held in Santiago in 1972, and consisted of a convention centre and 22-storey building. The building was finished in 275 days by several thousand volunteers, part of a propaganda initiative by the socialist government of Salvador Allende. The complex was damaged by fire in 2006 and rebuilt as GAM in 2010, named after the Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral, the first Latin American woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. It looks like a giant rusty cheese grater from the street, with little plazas, murals, cafes and more.

BELLAVISTA Then, it was back over to Santa Lucia market (left) to buy shoes (Steve) and a vicuna cardi (me) before walking to Barrio Bellavista to visit the Lapis Lazuli shop http://www.lapislazulihouse.cl/eng/index.php (Bellavista 08. Second Floor) where we bought some Valentine Day earrings and cufflinks. From the foothills of the Chilean Andes, Lapis Lazuli House provides the world with fine lapis lazuli jewellery. Handcrafted in Santiago by expert artisans, its designs come from a three-generation family tradition of lapis lazuli jewellery. The natural stone, prized for its beauty and power, is mined from deep within the Andes, yet with its stunning shades of blue, one might believe it was pulled from the sky rather than beneath the earth. Located in Santiago de Chile, in the foothills of the Chilean Andes, Lapis Lazuli House has worked for over 40 years to provide fine, handcrafted lapis lazuli jewellery and ornamentation to clients worldwide. Their unique designs are individually crafted by Chilean artisans working with natural lapis lazuli, sterling silver, and semi-precious stones. Since it was founded, Lapis Lazuli House has supported dozens of local craftsmen in the design, manufacture, and promotion of their work, helping to reduce poverty in underprivileged areas. Lapis Lazuli House was founded by Luciana Celis in 1971. With encouragement from her father-in-law, Joseph Lamonica, Luciana established the first Chilean Lapis boutique in Bellavista, a well-known bohemian and artistic hub in Santiago de Chile. Lapis lazuli was declared the Chilean national stone in 1984. For their rich history and the quality of their fine Chilean handicraft, Lapis Lazuli House is recognised in prestigious travel guides such as Lonely Planet, Rough Guides, and Baedekers. In 2014, Lapis Lazuli House strengthened its international presence by establishing its first US subsidiary in Washington, D.C. The gemstone itself is considered semi-precious, and its colour comes from a combination of several minerals. While the rock is mostly composed of lazurite, from which it gains the iconic blue colouring, the presence of calcite is responsible for ivory streaking, and the golden hues are a result of pyrite. Today, lapis lazuli is mined primarily in Chile and Afghanistan. The deposits within the Chilean Andes are widely appreciated for their deep blue colouring. With the high yield of lapis stone from the Flor de los Andes mine (3,600 m above sea level), Chile has become the most respected source of lapis lazuli in the world. Then it was a walk back to the hotel for a rest before dinner.
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LASTARRIA
We ordered an Uber to get us to Bocanáriz Wine bar, José Victorino Lastarria 276 http://www.bocanariz.cl. Bocanáriz is situated in the heart of one of the most beautiful and historic neighbourhoods in the city. The menu was designed around flavours that aim to enhancing the taste of the wine. Since opening, they have focused on being The Showcase of Chilean Wine, with one of the longest and awarded lists in the country and with a wine list awarded for the third year in a row as one of the best in the world, by the prestigious international magazine Wine Spectator. They have a selection of nearly 400 bottles, showcasing wine production in Chile, from acknowledged wineries with vast productions to signature wines of very small artisan producers. We chose their “Flights” menu where the wine and food are chosen to complement each other. (Actually I’d say the wine comes first and the food was chosen second or consider this, of the 19-page menu, 15 were the wine list!)
The food/wine as below!!
To start: visit Chile from sea to mountain range in gastronomy and wines, showing products and diversity in terms of peaks and expressions.
Entree: Trilogy of Sea and Mountain: Abalone in green sauce / Biscuit with chopped meat / Mature goats cheese & quince on toast Pairing 3 tasting
glasses of 50cc each:
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- Sauvignon Blanc from Concha y Toro Terrunyo (Casablanca) 2015. Just 25 years ago there was only grazing and fruit in Casablanca Valley. In
1982 Pablo Morandé, Concha y Toro’s winemaker, planted Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling, as the valley was perfect for cool climate
whites. The first wines (late 1980s) prompted more planting, curtailed only by a shortage of water. As there is no river in the valley, irrigation
is from artesian wells; one can now only plant if water rights have already been acquired. It therefore remains a small area of production, less
than 5% of Chilean vineyards. Casablanca has a cool climate. As the valley is open to the Pacific it benefits from thick maritime fogs, which can
remain until the afternoon, and cold winds off the ocean. The only problem is frost, which can strike into November. It is a great region for
white wine, and over 2/3 of the vineyards are white grapes, mainly Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc, but it is also one the best sites in Chile
for Pinot Noir. The Concha y Toro Vineyard was founded by Don Melchor de Santiago Concha y Toro and his wife, Emiliana Subercaseaux, in
1883 with grapes from Bordeaux (Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc, Semillon, Merlot, Carmenère). The Concha y Toro family are connect-
ed to Chilean aristocracy; the director is Marquess of Casa Concha, a Chilean diplomat and ambassador; and the president Alfonso Larraín
Santa María is Marquess of Larraín in Spain. http://www.conchaytoro.com/descubre-vinos/fine-wine collection/terrunyo-sauvignon-blanc-en/
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- Carménère Winemakers Black from Vina Carmen 2013 (Apalta). Winemaker’s Black expresses the energy and character of the Apalta Valley.
Deep and intense carmine red, the nose features ripe blackberries, blackcurrant, and cedar aromas that blend with light notes of paprika,
sweet spices, and lead. This wine of richness and volume with smooth, sweet tannins, has a lingering finish. Viña Carmen was founded by
Christian Lanz in 1850 and named in honour of his wife. In 1987 it became part of Grupo Claro, which has vineyards throughout Chile. In 1994
Vina Carmen was instrumental in rediscovering Carménère in their vineyards, specifically the Alto Maipo Valley, an event that returned this
variety, long thought extinct after the mid 19th century phylloxera infection, to the world’s wine heritage, becoming in 1996, the first winery to
create and sell Carménère wine. Winemaker is their premium label, produced by their winemaker, Sebastián Labbé. He was born in Chile, but
learned his craft at Margrain Vineyard, a boutique winery in Marlborough, New Zealand focused on producing white wines and Pinot Noir.
www.carmen.com/en/wines/winemakers/black/
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- Vinedos de Alcohuaz Grus (Syrah / Garnacha / Malbec / Petite Syrah) (Elqui) GRUS 2015 Viñedos Alcohuaz Grus, Elqui (Valley). Alcohuaz is the
name of the small village near the vineyard. Viñedos de Alcohuaz is a young project, the vines are 10 years old and planted on granite/ volcanic
soils in the semi-arid environment of the Elqui Valley. The vineyard is farmed organically-biodynamically. Marcelo Retamal of de Martino fame
is responsible for winemaking at this 18ha estate. GRUS is a blend of Syrah, Grenache, Petite Sirah and Malbec, fermented in stone lagares and
aged 12 months in Nomblot concrete Eggs. The name GRUS comes from a constellation of stars - the crane bird. Elqui and Limari are out of this
world arid with less than 1 inch of rainfall a year (7 times less than the Gobi Desert!). The day-to-night temperature shift is about 16.1oC. Elqui
is unique because it has 3 distinct climate zones: Coastal (morning fog and less extreme temperature shifts); Mid-Valley (large temperature
swings (diurnal shift) and 330 days of sun a year); Andes (high elevation vineyards, up to 2133 m). Despite being within the Atacama Desert,
Elqui and Limari are ideally suited to vines. The valleys are actually considered cool climates because of the huge diurnal temperature shifts.
The Pacific Ocean breezes and morning fog, that appears along the coast around a 1⁄3 of the mornings through the year, help reduce the
intensity of the sun on the vines and make the valleys relatively cool for a richer, creamier Sauvignon Blanc, and dense, yet light, Syrah. The
Elqui Valley wine region is located 400km north of Santiago, at the southern edge of the Atacama Desert. Its latitude of 29° makes it Chile’s
northernmost wine region. Traditionally the region focused on producing Chile's trademark brandy, Pisco, but today Elqui Valley vineyards are
producing bright, aromatic wines. Elqui is famous for its bright sunshine, pure air and clear skies (the region is also home to a number of
astronomical observatories). Vineyards here receive far higher levels of solar radiation than any European wine region. The secret to
successful viticulture this close to the equator is altitude. Elqui's vineyards, some of the highest in the world, are up to 2200m above sea level,
which means warm, bright, days followed by cool, fresh nights. This diurnal temperature variation lengthens the grape growing season,
allowing the grapes time to develop intense varietal character, while retaining refreshing levels of acidity. There is no major north-south valley
here between the coast and the Andes, just a series of spectacular transverse valleys that deliver precious Andean melt-water to the vineyards.
Table wine was first produced here in the 1990s, when Chilean producers began to look beyond the Central Valley. The name Elqui means
'narrow valley' in the local Quechua language, which perfectly sums up the local geography as mountains line the valley on either side. Elqui
Valley features Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay, Carménère and Pedro Ximenez. http://vdalcohuaz.cl/
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Main: We chose Strip roast in red wine with potato sweet potato and fried onion scales Pairing: 150cc Carménère 2014 Casa Silva Gran Terroir Los Lingues (Fundo Los Lingues, Valle de Colchagua), a smoky, savoury, black fruited Chilean Carménère. This is one of the finest examples of Chilean Carménère. The grapes are from vineyards planted in Los Lingues, 20km north-east of their Angostura site. Here the terroir gives the Carménère a smokier style with blackberry and blackcurrant fruit. Emilio Bouchon arrived in Chile from St. Emilion, Bordeaux, in 1892, and his family has been making wine here ever since. They were pioneers in the Colchagua Valley, although it was not until 1997 that Mario Pablo Silva, the eldest son of the 5th generation, and his father, Mario Silva, shared the dream of making wines under their own label. The latter has dedicated much of his life to recovering the old vineyards and wine cellar and acquired a unique understanding of the terroir in Colchagua Valley. His other sons Francisco, Gonzalo, and Raimundo joined soon after. From the original vineyard site and winery in Angostura, new sites have been planted in Los Lingues, Lolol and Colchagua’s first coastal estate at Paredones. With the “Microterroir Project” and “Carménère Clone Project” now fully underway, the future is bright for Vina Casa Silva, which remains a family business. Vina Casa Silva is the most awarded winery in Chile. Located in the birthplace of rural Chilean tradition, Colchagua Valley has received more international awards and accolades than any other Chilean wine region. Colchagua Valley is divided into the Andean sector, influenced by the mountains, a central sector on the flatlands, and a coastal sector, influenced by the Pacific Ocean. Los Lingues, on the northeast border of Colchagua Valley at the foot of the Andes Mountains, has its own microclimate, which makes it a small sub-valley. Carménère and Cabernet Sauvignon planted are of very high quality and character. Los Lingues Carménère has earned countless accolades at home and abroad. There is also a small amount of very good Petit Verdot grown here as well as an experimental garden. The soils are of alluvial-colluvial origin, composed of ancient terrace formations with low organic matter and low-medium fertility. The texture varies from fine sand, clay, and angulated granite stones with excellent drainage. Because the property is located at the foot of the mountains, it has a unique and irregular topography, making it a fascinating place to conduct micro-terroir studies. The climate is temperate Mediterranean. The influence of the Andes is felt in cool nights with day-night temperature oscillations up to 20oC, ideal for fruit concentration in grapes. The opening between the mountain ranges creates a breeze that keeps the temperature around the grape clusters uniform and ensures excellent health conditions. The average rainfall is lower here than in the rest of the valley. The wines are of exceptional quality with tremendous body and colour, natural sweetness and soft tannins. http://www.casasilva.cl/company.html

Dessert: Chocolate fondant with vanilla ice cream Pairing: Tasting glass (50cc) Armidita Pajarete (Moscatel) (Huasco) 2013 http://armidita.cl/en A
lovely sweet muscatel from Viña Armidita, a family-owned company located in the heart of the Atacama Desert, in the high Huasco Valley. Sunlight and sweetness combine with a balanced sourness to produce unique wines that express the terrúa of an unparalleled geography. Pajarete is a sweet full-bodied wine, elaborated with muscatel grapes. Armidita distinguish themselves as a winery that rescues Denominations of Origin that seem lost, infusing them with new life through an artisanal winemaking process seeking to recapture the qualities of the Muscatel. The winery was established by Nicolás Naranjo, a lover of winemaking. In 1873 he built the Armidita canal, 14km long, to irrigate his 250hc estate. He invited a vintner from Spain to plant the first vines. In 1880, Nicolás named the winery Armidita, in honour of his daughter who died age 11, and in 1888 he produced the first Chilean wine to receive an award in France. Together with Domingo Concha y Toro, Ismael Tocornal and Domingo Errazuriz, Don Nicolas is considered a pioneer of Chilean winemaking. After Don Nicolas, the estate had two owners before Don Gudelio Ramirez Muñoz. Attracted by the fertile Huasco valley, he acquired the estate in 1972 with his wife, Violeta Ibarbe, who had worked with her father in the vineyard and winery, and started to make pajarete. Nowadays, Gudelio and his daughters Sandra and Cecilia run the winery. History of Pajarete- Around the site of the town of Vallenar, 17th century Jesuits brought wine production from Andalucía (Monte de Pajarete) to El Carmen valley, as a sacramental wine. Its legacy was passed through generations in Chile’s Huasco Alto valleys, with different types of pajarete. Originally of rustic production (sun dried, sieve-crushed) with issues of oxidation, poor fermentation or dirty casks, it was long considered an inferior wine. It was illegally made and sold for nearly 200 years before the Chilean government trained producers in better production and made a legal and quality wine. Over 90% of pajarete is made in the Atacama/ Coquimbo area, specifically Huasco.
After a very pleasant meal we ordered (with a little difficulty) an Uber back to the hotel.

History of Santiago
European conquest and colonisation (1540–1810)
Pedro de Valdivia (right), a captain in the army, realising the potential for expanding the Spanish empire southward, and despite de Almagro’s failure, asked Pizarro's permission to head to the southern lands. With 200 men, he subdued the local inhabitants and in 1541 founded the city of Santiago de Nueva Extremadura, now Santiago. Valdivia could see the agricultural richness of the land and continued to explore west of the Andes, founding over a dozen towns and establishing the first encomiendas. The greatest resistance came from the Mapuche people, who opposed European conquest and colonisation until the 1880s; known as the Arauco War. Valdivia died at the Battle of Tucapel, defeated by Lautaro, a young Mapuche toqui (war chief), but European conquest continued. Conquistador Pedro de Valdivia was from Extremadura (an impoverished region of Spain, also the birthplace of Pizarro) and was sent by Francisco Pizarro from Cuzco, reaching the valley of the Mapocho on 13 December 1540.
4ad023b0-8f12-11eb-95ca-e74b71dc51f6.pngValdivia camped by the river in the slopes of the Tupahue hill and met with the picunches (natives) who inhabited the area. Valdivia summoned the local chiefs and explained his intention to found a city on behalf of King Carlos I of Spain, as the capital of his governorship of Nueva Extremadura. The natives recommended a small island between two branches of the river next to a small hill called Huelén (Santa Lucia). On 12 February 1541, Valdivia officially founded the city of Santiago del Nuevo Extremo (Santiago of New Extremadura) in honour of St. James (Santiago being the Galician evolution of Vulgar Latin Sanctu Iacobu, "Saint James") and entrusted the grid layout of the new town to master builder Pedro de Gamboa. Gamboa designed a Plaza Mayor, around which plots for the Cathedral and the governor’s house were selected. In total, 8 blocks north to south, and 10 east to west, were built. Each solar (quarter block) was given to settlers, who built houses of mud and straw. Valdivia left months later to go south with his troops, leaving Santiago unprotected. The indigenous hosts of Michimalonco used this to their advantage, and attacked. The city was destroyed by the natives, but the Spanish garrison of 55 managed to defend the fort, led by Inés de Suárez, mistress to Valdivia. When she realised they were being overrun, she ordered the execution of all native prisoners, put their heads on pikes and threw a few heads to the natives. In face of this barbaric act, the natives dispersed in terror. The city was rebuilt, giving prominence to the newly founded Concepción, where the Royal Audiencia of Chile was founded in 1565. However, the constant danger faced by Concepción, due to its proximity to the War of Arauco and a succession of devastating earthquakes, would not allow the definitive establishment of the Royal Court in Santiago until 1607, reaffirming the city's role as capital.
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Inés de Suárez, defending Santiago against a Mapuche attack in 1541
Inés Suárez, (c.1507–80) was a female Spanish conquistador who participated in the Conquest of Chile with Pedro de Valdivia and successfully defended Santiago against a Mapuche attack in 1541. She was born in Extremadura, and came to America c1537 in search of her husband Juan de Málaga, who had left with the Pizarro brothers. After searching South America, she arrived in Lima in 1538. Her husband was already dead, so in 1539 she applied for and was granted, as the widow of a Spanish soldier, a plot of land in Cuzco and encomienda rights to some Indians. She became the mistress of Pedro Gutiérrez de Valdivia (1497–1553) after he returned from the Battle of Las Salinas (1538). Although they were from the same area of Spain and at least one novelist tells of a long-standing love affair, there is no evidence they had met prior to this. Valdivia was a Spanish conquistador and the first royal governor of Chile. He was sent to South America in 1534, as lieutenant under Francisco Pizarro in Peru. There he took part on the side of Hernando Pizarro against Diego de Almagro in the battle of Las Salinas in 1538, which saw Almagro defeated and captured. In late 1539, encouraged by his captains, Valdivia requested official permission for Suárez to become a part of the group of Spaniards he was leading south into Chile. After the failure of Diego de Almagro’s expedition of 1536, the lands south of Peru remained unexplored. Valdivia asked governor Francisco Pizarro for permission to complete the conquest of that territory. He got his permission but was appointed only Lieutenant Governor, and not Governor, as he had wanted. Valdivia had to sell the lands and mine that had been assigned to him to finance the expedition. A shortage of soldiers was problematic as they were uninterested in conquering what they were sure were extremely poor lands. Furthermore, while he was preparing the expedition, Pedro Sancho de Hoz arrived from Spain with a royal grant for the same country. To avoid difficulties, Pizarro advised the two competitors to join their interests, and in 1539, a partnership was signed, leaving Cuzco in 1540, with seeds, swine, brood mares, 1000 native Indians, a few Spaniards and Inés de Suárez. En route 150 more Spaniards joined. Valdivia resolved to avoid the road over the Andes, which had proved fatal to Almagro, and set out through the Atacama Desert, where Suarez found water. On the way, de Hoz, seeking sole leadership, tried to murder Valdivia but failed (due to Suarez), and had to accept subordinate status. The natives, having already experienced the incursions of the Spaniards, (Diego de Almagro, 1535/6) burned their crops and drove off their livestock, leaving nothing for Valdivia’s band and the animals which accompanied them. The natives were not pleased by the return of the Spaniards due to the maltreatment they had suffered under Almagro, but Valdivia was able to regain their trust. After 5 months, they arrived at the Copiapo valley, where Valdivia officially took possession of the land in the name of the Spanish king. Soon after they continued south and in 1540, reached the valley of the Mapocho river, where they established the capital of the territory. The valley was extensive and well populated with natives. Its soil was fertile and there was abundant fresh water and two hills provided defensive positions. Soon after their arrival, Valdivia tried to convince the native inhabitants of his good intentions, sending out delegations bearing gifts for the caciques (chiefs). In 1541, Valdivia officially founded the city of Santiago de la Nueva Extremadura. After arriving in Chile, Valdivia and his men went out of their way to restore the relationship between conquistador and Indian that had been so harmed by Almagro. At first, Valdivia was successful in his efforts to deal benevolently with the native population, but this peaceful coexistence did not last long. One of the first orders Valdivia gave was to have a ship constructed at the mouth of the Aconcagua River to send to Peru for further supplies and to serve as a courier service, but soon was obliged to return in haste to Santiago to subdue a mutiny.
4b0f4f90-8f12-11eb-95ca-e74b71dc51f6.pngBernado O’Higgins (the Liberator) portrait in National Museum
Valdivia tried to convince the natives of his good intentions, sending delegations bearing gifts for the caciques. The natives kept the gifts but united under the leadership of Michimalonco, attacked the Spaniards and were at the point of overwhelming them. Suddenly, the natives threw down their weapons and fled. Captured Indians declared that they had seen a man, mounted on a white horse and carrying a naked sword, descend from the clouds and attack them. The Spaniards decided it was a miraculous appearance of Santo Iago (Saint James). On learning of Francisco Pizarro's murder in 1541, Valdivia appointed himself governor of the territory by the council of Santiago, and removed Chile from Peruvian control, acknowledging only royal authority, an arrangement the Crown found acceptable. Secure in his own domain, he pushed exploration south and aided the development of the country by dividing the land among his ablest followers and parcelling out the Indians in encomiendas. Chile possessed minerals, but Valdivia subordinated mining to agriculture and stock raising. Still, the colony was not prosperous; gold was scarce and the Araucanians warlike. In August 1541, when Valdivia was occupied on the coast, Suárez uncovered another plot to unseat him. After the plotters were taken care of, Valdivia turned his attention to the Indians and invited seven caciques to meet with him. When the Indians arrived, Valdivia them held as hostages for the safe delivery of the provisions and the safety of outlying settlements. On September 9, Valdivia took 40 men and left the city to put down an uprising of Indians near Aconcagua. A young yanakuna brought word to Captain Alonso de Monroy, who had been left in charge of the city, that the woods around the city were full of natives. Suárez was asked if she thought that the Indian hostages should be released as a peace gesture. She replied that she saw it as a bad idea; if the Indians overpowered the Spaniards, the hostages were their only bargaining ship. Monroy accepted her counsel and called a council of war. The Spaniards rode out to engage the Indians, led by Michimalonco. The Mapuche forced the Spanish to retreat across the Mapocho River and by mid-afternoon, they were backed up to the plaza itself. All day the battle raged. Suárez recognized the extreme danger of the situation and offered a suggestion. All day the 7 caciques who were prisoners of the Spaniards, had been shouting encouragement to their people. Suárez proposed decapitation, followed by tossing their heads out among the Indians to frighten them. There was some objection to the plan, since several men felt that the fall of the city was imminent and that the captive caciques would be their only bargaining point with the Indians. Suárez insisted that hers was the only viable solution to their problem. She then went to the house where the chieftains were guarded by Francisco Rubio and Hernando de la Torre and gave the order for the execution. Mariño de Lobera tells that the guard, La Torre, asked, "In what manner shall we kill them, my lady?" "In this manner," she replied, and, seizing la Torre’s sword, she herself cut off the heads. After the seven were decapitated and their heads thrown out, Suárez donned a coat of mail and helmet and, throwing a hide cloak over her shoulders, rode out on her white horse as a brave captain. The Spanish took advantage of the confusion among the Indians, and spurred on by the woman who now led them, succeeded in driving the now disordered Indians from the town. Valdivia arrived shortly after, but all that was left of the town was 3 pigs and 2 chickens. Valdivia rewarded Suárez with an encomienda. Although there is a good deal of consistency in the accounts, given the passage of time and the Spanish tendency to embroider their reports, it is likely there was some exaggeration in the telling, but certainly Suárez played a crucial role in the salvation of Santiago in 1541. Had it not been for her, the city would have certainly fallen and the Spaniards most likely slaughtered by the Mapuche, ending, at least for a time, the southward colonial expansion. This event was a setback in the conquest of Chile. The resistance of the Indians became daily stronger, and as the ship he had constructed in Aconcagua was also destroyed by the natives, Valdivia sent his lieutenant Alonso de Monroy and five followers to seek reinforcements in Peru in 1542. However, on account of a civil war there following the defeat of El Mozo Almagro by Cristóbal Vaca de Castro, Monroy could not obtain much aid, and returned in September 1543, with only 70 horsemen, and a vessel with provisions and ammunition to the port of Aconcagua. In 1543 new arms and equipment arrived from Peru and Valdivia started rebuilding Santiago. He sent an expedition, led by Juan Bohon, to explore the northern region of Chile. This expedition founded La Serena halfway between Santiago and the northern Atacama Desert, in the valley of Coquimbo. Valparaíso, though used as a port by the Spaniards from the start, had no considerable population until much later.
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Detail of cathedral floor
In 1544 Valdivia sent a naval expedition consisting of the barks San Pedro and Santiaguillo, under the command of Juan Bautista Pastene, to reconnoitre the southwestern coast of South America, ordering him to reach the Strait of Magellan. The left sail from Valparaíso and although Pastene did not reach his goal, he explored much of the coast. He entered the bay of San Pedro, and landed at what now are Concepción and Valdivia. Encountering severe storms further south, he returned to Valparaiso. In 1546 Valdivia set out, with 60 horsemen, native guides and porters, and crossed Itata River. He got to Bío-Bío River where he planned to found another town, but was stopped by Mapuche warriors at the Battle of Quilacura. Realising it was impossible to proceed in hostile territory with so limited a force, Valdivia returned to Santiago. Shortly after he found a site for a new city (now Penco) and the first site of Concepción, subduing the country between Santiago and Maule River. To secure further aid and confirm his claims to the conquered territory, Valdivia returned in 1547 to Peru, leaving Francisco de Villagra as governor in his stead. There he tried to gather more resources and men to continue the conquest. The Gonzalo Pizarro rebellion had begun in Peru, and the insurgents attempted unsuccessfully to win Valdivia to their side. In 1548 he joined the royal army of Viceroy Pedro de la Gasca, and his military experience counted heavily in the victory of Xaquixahuana. A discontented faction from Chile managed to have him tried in Lima, accused of tyranny, malfeasance of public funds and public immorality (as, though married, he was living with Inés de Suárez "in the manner of man and wife”). In exchange for his freedom and confirmation as Governor, he relinquished Ines and on his return to Chile in 1549 married her off to one of his captains, Rodrigo de Quiroga. As recognition for his services Valdivia was appointed adelantado and won royal assent to his coveted title of Royal Governor of Chile, returning with his position and prestige considerably strengthened. He was forced to bring his wife to Chile, who only arrived after his death in 1554. In Chile the Spaniards' greed quickly surfaced with rumours of gold at the Marga Marga mines, near Valparaiso, and settlers began forcing the natives to work there. Arauco War In 1549-53, after his arrival back in Santiago, Valdivia again undertook the conquest of southern Chile, but faced heavy resistance from the indigenous population. He clashed with the Araucanians beyond Bio-Bio River in 1550 when he defeated them but by no means broke their will to resist, a will that grew stronger when the conquistador established settlements in their territory. In spite of fierce resistance at the Battle of Penco, he founded Concepción in 1550 and more southern villages of La Imperial, Valdivia, Angol and Villarrica, in 1551/2. After a brief stay in Santiago, Valdivia returned to the south in December 1552.
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View from Cerro Cristobal (by gondolas).View of Santiago from Cristobal.
To keep the connection between Concepción and the southern settlements, Valdivia built forts in Cordillera de Nahuelbuta, with one at Tucapel in 1553. On the advice of the cacique Colocolo, the Araucanians united their efforts choosing as toqui (general-in- chief) the famous warrior Caupolicán. Valdivia had earlier captured Lautaro, an Araucanian youth who became his groom. Lautaro secretly remained true to his own people and rejoined them to show Caupolicán a means by which Valdivia could be defeated. The Araucanians revolted and fell on the over- extended Spanish forces in the south. The first sign that a big rebellion was coming was the attack on the fort at Tucapel, where they destroyed the fortress in 1553. Valdivia was at Concepcion when he received notice, and, believing that he could easily subdue the uprising, hurried south with only 40 men to stamp out the rebellion. Near the ruins of the fortress Valdivia gathered the remnant of the garrison, but he was ambushed and the Battle of Tucapel would be Valdivia's last. As each attack was beaten off by the Spaniards, Lautaro sent another, until the entire Spanish company was massacred and Valdivia was captured alive along with a priest by the Mapuche.
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Statue of Valdivia in Plaza de Armas
There are many versions of Valdivia's death. According to Jerónimo de Vivar, a contemporary author, the execution of Valdivia was personally ordered by Caupolicán, who had him killed with a lance and put his head, along with those of two of his companions, on display. Another contemporary chronicler, Alonso de Góngora Marmolejo writes that Valdivia to evacuate all Spanish settlements on Mapuche land, but this offer was rejected and the Mapuche cut off his arms, roasted and ate them in front of him before killing him and his priest. Alonso de Ercilla says that Valdivia was killed with the blow of a club, then a warrior cut open his breast and passed his still quivering heart to the toqui, who sucked its blood. The heart was passed round from one to another, and a drinking cup was made from his skull. Another contemporary chronicler, Pedro Mariño de Lobera, wrote that Valdivia offered to leave the lands of the Mapuche but was killed by a warrior named Pilmaiquen, who said that Valdivia could not be trusted to keep his word. Lobera adds that a common story in Chile at the time was that Valdivia had been killed by forcing him to drink molten gold. The fact remains that probably all the stories are apocryphal, since none of Valdivia's party survived the battle, and the only witnesses were Indians captured in subsequent battles. The site of his death is close to the modern city of Valdivia. Suarez led a quiet life in Santiago, held in great esteem as a valiant woman and great captain. After Valdivia’s death, her husband became Royal Governor, in 1565 and 1575. They both died in Santiago, within months of each other, in 1580.
The Spanish never subjugated the Mapuche; all attempts, military and peaceful, failed. The Great Uprising of 1598 swept away all Spanish presence
south of the Bío-Bío River except Chiloé (and Valdivia which was later re-established as a fort), and the great river became the frontier between Mapuche lands and the Spanish realm. North of the line cities grew up, and Chile became an important food producer for the Viceroyalty of Peru. Valdivia became the first governor of the Captaincy General of Chile, under the viceroy of Peru and, through him, the King of Spain and his
bureaucracy. Responsible to the governor, town councils known as Cabildo administered local municipalities, the most important of which was Santiago, the seat of a Royal Appeals Court (Real Audiencia) from 1609 until the end of colonial rule. Chile was the least wealthy realm of the Spanish Crown for most of its colonial history. Only in the 18th century did a steady economic and demographic growth begin, an effect of the reforms by Spain's Bourbon dynasty and a more stable situation along the frontier.
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View of Sky Costanera and Giratorio, Casa Colorada, La Moneda Palace (and Constitution Square)

detail of metro system and front of La Moneda Palace

Posted by PetersF 15:28 Archived in Chile Tagged museum cathedral chile santiago wine plaza Comments (0)

Chile - last day in Santiago

La Moneda, Cousino Macul

17th Feb Santiago LA MONEDA AND PLAZA

Our last day in Santiago and our last chance to watch the guard changing ceremony. Having taken the metro we arrived in good time, although there were already quite a few people there. It was, however, worth the wait as it was an impressive show with horses, marching bands, etc. The palace itself is quite interesting too! La Moneda Palace/ Palacio de La Moneda is the seat of the President of the Republic of Chile and General Secretariat. It occupies an entire block in downtown Santiago, in the Civic District between Moneda (North), Morandé (East), Alameda del Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins (South) and Teatinos street (West). La Moneda, originally a colonial mint (Moneda = coin) 1814-1929, was designed by Italian architect Joaquín Toesca. Construction began 1784 and it was opened in 1805. In June, 1845 under president Manuel Bulnes, the palace became the seat of government and presidential residence. In 1930, a public square, Plaza de la Constitución was built in front of the palace. After the presidency of Gabriel González Videla it ceased to be a presidential residence. In the military coup d'état of 1973, the Chilean Air Force bombarded the palace. Reconstruction was completed 1981, although some bullet marks have been preserved. During the restorations, an underground office complex (bunker) was built under the front square to provide a safe escape for dictator General Augusto Pinochet. President Ricardo Lagos opened the inner courtyards to the public during certain hours of the day. Lagos also re-opened Morandé 80 gate (used by Chilean presidents to enter the palace, eliminated during the restoration as not being in the original plans, but restored for its symbolism as the gate through which Chilean Presidents entered La Moneda as ordinary citizens). It was also the gate through which the body of President Allende was taken out after the 1973 coup. A traditional changing of the guard ceremony takes place every two days (odd days in odd-number months, even days in even-number months, inc Sun, at 10 a.m. weekdays and 11 a.m. on w/ends). A formal ceremony dating back to 1850, it lasts 30 mins and includes a band, troops with horses parading in the square, pomp and circumstance. Carabineros de Chile provides the guards and band for the ceremony.
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The Palacio de la Moneda’s main façade faces Moneda street, and its rooms are distributed along the transverse and longitudinal axes forming several patios; Patio de los Cañones (entrance hall); a covered patio; Patio de los Naranjos (presidential ceremonies). To celebrate the bicentenary of Chile’s independence 2010, a public square, Plaza de la Ciudadanía (Citizens Square) was constructed on the south side of the palace down to the Avenida Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins or “Alameda”. Designed by Undurraga Devés Arquitectos, the Plaza has been called “one of the most important public works in the last century”. Paths leading down from the plaza give access to the underground Palacio de La Moneda Cultural Centre.

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We had booked a trip to the Cousino vineyard for late afternoon, so decided to head back towards the Plaza des Armas to admire the buildings.
We went into the beautiful Post Office (left) built 1881 in Beaux Arts style (interior right) and then decided to try the National History Museum, which was not rated good on most websites, but had the advantage of being free! Personally I think they did it an injustice as it was surprisingly well done, dealing with the history of Chile in a chronological manner. There were a number of quite nice artefacts, including some prehistory ceramics, some great paintings (mainly of kings and governors, but notably also a famous one of Donna Ines Suarez defending Santiago in the Mapuche attack). As we headed towards the end of the upper floor an attendant approached us and asked if we’d like to go up the bell tower. Of course we did! Only 3 people are allowed up at a time, so we were quite lucky. The spiral staircase up 3 flights opened to a small balcony and a beautiful view of the Plaza below. When we’d finished we went back down and found that he was refusing everyone else; it looks like it’s up to the attendant, so we were really privileged.

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Palacio de la Real Audiencia de Santiago (Royal Court Palace or Palace of the Boxes) is a building located in the north central area of the Plaza de Armas. The building houses, since 1982, the National History Museum of Chile. The building was built 1804-07 to serve as the home for the royal courts of justice. It was the work of Juan Goycolea, a pupil and disciple of the Italian-born Joaquin Toesca who designed the nearby La Moneda Palace and the east facade of the Cathedral in the last two decades of the 18th century. The courts sat here for 2 years until Chile's first government junta, in 1810, assembled to replace the Spanish governor. Eight years later the Chilean Declaration of Independence was solidified and the building served as the meeting place for the new congress and the seat of government until 1846, until President Manuel Bulnes moved to La Moneda Palace. The Chilean National History Museum (Museo Histórico Nacional or MHN) is located in the Palacio de la Real Audiencia. The institution was founded 1911 and consists of the former palace's old rooms used as exhibition spaces for artefacts relating to the history of Chile. There is a room of archaeology/ethnology, as well as rooms for coins/medals, army stuff, paintings (artisanal), conquest, church and state, colonial life, republican Chile, popular front, etc. http://www.museohistoriconacional.cl

Definitely lunch time! We wanted to sit and enjoy the Plaza and its bustling life, so we chose an open air restaurant by the cathedral. Faisan d’Or, the restaurant, served us typical Chilean empanadas and a nice cool drink. Perfect.
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Arica Culture 1000-1400; Chiu Chui 700-1000 and Atacama cultures 900-1200; Inca 1300-1400 and Arica 900-1200 AD pots

After lunch we just went for a stroll, passing Casa Colorada and ending at La Merced. The red basilica looked interesting, so we went in and were surprised it is not particularly mentioned in tourist guides. When Pedro de Valdivia established Santiago the Order of Mercy priests (Mercedarians)
arrived in 1541 and built a church. However, the Franciscans managed to take possession of it soon after in 1556, leaving the Mercadarians churchless. Juan Fernandez de Alderete, a member of Valdivia’s expedition therefore donated the La Merced land to them for their church. It was destroyed in several earthquakes until the current building (1765), completed internally by Joaquin Toesca (1799) in neo-Renaissance style. The towers were added in 1859 and 1885. It contains two splinters of “The Cross”, a painting (on the altar) of Mary from Emperor Carlos V and two wood carvings of Mary in cases in the nave. There were some grand tombs, of Rodrigo de Quiroga and his wife, Mateo de Toro Zambrano and the Count of Quinta Alegre. In the presbytery, are the symbols of basilical dignity: the tintinábulo and the conopeo, the only ones in Chile. To the left of the main altar is the Altar of the Blessed Sacrament, in Carrara marble. In the pink, apricot and green aisles were pictures of mercedarios saints. The main altar is surrounded by a construction supported by columns and pilasters, smooth. The sides are fully decorated with the pink, damask and green tones. After the church we went next door to their museum (previously the cloisters). We paid a minute entrance fee and went in. The museum is arranged around a central garden and we were the only people. The lower floor was interesting, especially their Easter Island room, which has one of the 29 remaining rongorongo tablets. The upstairs was less interesting as it was all artefacts from their liturgical processions. http://www.barriolastarria.com/museo_la_merced_barrio_lastarria.htm
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WINE TASTING http://www.cousinomacul.com/en/
It was time to head back to the hotel so we could catch an uber to take us to Viñas Cousino Macul and Aquitania. It was quite a drive, but a sunny day, so pleasant. There were barriers at the entrance, but as we had prebooked it was fine. The English tour started at 3pm, and we went initially outside to look at the vineyards (originally they had owned most of the land up to the Plaza des Armas!), then inside to the vaults, both old wood barrels and the modern metal. The winery is heavily influenced by French traditions, including ideas about terroir, corks, ageing, etc. Interestingly they keep a “library” of each year’s wines, just a few bottles of each. Below that were the old vaults and barrels, no longer in use due to mould. Upstairs again was a small museum showing where they first exported to and even their ingenious bottling 4-stroke car engine! Finally, the tasting! We had a varietal, Reserva and Gran Reserva.

  • Antiguas Reservas Chardonnay. The first chardonnay was made in 1969 here and is one of their finer vintages, of quite restricted numbers.
  • Finis Terrae (Maipo), a mix of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. 75% of the wine comes from their oldest vineyards.
  • Antiguas Gran Reservas Syrah, their emblem wine.

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Grapes were first grown on this estate in 1564, when the King of Spain granted Hacienda Macul to conquistador Juan Jufre. In 1760 Juan Antonio Cousino arrives from Spain and marries the heiress of the estate. Sadly she died giving birth to her first child, so Luis Cousino (her son) became sole proprietor on his father’s death. His half sister, Isadora, later joined him and was very influential in bring new varieties of grape from Europe and constructing the important winery vaults in European fashion. In 1970 much of the Macul land was appropriated and the family moved most of its vineyards, apart from this estate, which now produces their premium wines. The Cousino family still own the vineyards and winery! Then it was an Uber back as we were leaving early the next morning. We decided on a nearby Providencia pub for dinner, so started with a jug of terremoto on the balcony of Tio Manolo, followed by dinner of pastel de choclo at Bar Bazul.

Parliamentary era (1891–1925)
The so-called Parliamentary Republic was not a true parliamentary system, in which the chief executive is elected by the legislature. It was, however, an unusual regime in presidentialist Latin America, for Congress really did overshadow the rather ceremonial office of the president and exerted authority over the chief executive's cabinet appointees. In turn, Congress was dominated by the landed elites. This was the heyday of classic political and economic liberalism. For many decades, historians derided the Parliamentary Republic as a quarrel-prone system that merely distributed spoils and clung to its laissez-faire policy while national problems mounted. At the mercy of Congress, cabinets came and went frequently, although there was more stability and continuity in public administration than historians have suggested. Chile temporarily resolved its border disputes with Argentina with the Puna de Atacama Lawsuit of 1899, the Boundary treaty of 1881 and the 1902 General Treaty of Arbitration, though not without engaging in an expensive naval arms race beforehand. Political authority ran from local electoral bosses in the provinces through the congressional and executive branches, which reciprocated with payoffs from taxes on nitrate sales. Congressmen often won election by bribing voters in this clientelistic and corrupt system. Many politicians relied on intimidated or loyal peasant voters in the countryside, even though the population was becoming increasingly urban. Lacklustre presidents and ineffectual administrations of the period did little to respond to the country's dependence on volatile nitrate exports, spiralling inflation, and massive urbanisation. In recent years, particularly when the authoritarian regime of Augusto Pinochet is taken into consideration, some scholars have re-evaluated the Parliamentary Republic of 1891–1925. Without denying its shortcomings, they have lauded its democratic stability, its control of the armed forces, respect for civil liberties, expansion of suffrage and participation, and gradual admission of new contenders, especially reformers, to the political arena. In particular, two parties grew in importance, the Democrat Party, with roots among artisans and urban workers, and the Radical Party, representing urban middle sectors and provincial elites. By the early 20th century, both parties were winning increasing numbers of seats in Congress. The more leftist members of the Democrat Party became involved in the leadership of labour unions and broke off to launch the Socialist Workers' Party (POS) in 1912. The founder of the POS and its best-known leader, Luis Emilio Recabarren, also founded the Communist Party of Chile (PCCh) in 1922.
Presidential era (1925–73)
By the 1920s, the emerging middle and working classes were powerful enough to elect a reformist president, Arturo Alessandri Palma. He appealed to those who believed social questions should be addressed, those worried by the decline in nitrate exports during WWI, and those weary of presidents dominated by Congress. Promising "evolution to avoid revolution", he pioneered a new campaign style of appealing directly to the masses. After winning a seat in the Senate representing the mining north in 1915, he earned the sobriquet "Lion of Tarapacá.” As a dissident Liberal running for the presidency, Alessandri attracted support from the more reformist Radicals and Democrats and formed the so-called Liberal Alliance. He received strong backing from the middle and working classes as well as from the provincial elites. Students and intellectuals also rallied to his banner. At the same time, he reassured the landowners that social reforms would be limited to the cities.
Alessandri discovered that his efforts would be blocked by the conservative Congress. Like Balmaceda, he infuriated them by going over their heads to appeal to the voters in the congressional elections of 1924. His reform legislation was finally rammed through Congress under pressure from younger military officers, sick of the neglect of the armed forces, political infighting, social unrest, and galloping inflation. A double military coup set off a period of great political instability that lasted until 1932. First military right-wingers opposing Alessandri seized power in 1924, and then reformers in favour of the ousted president took charge in 1925. The Saber noise (ruido de sables) incident of 1924, provoked by discontent of young officers, mostly middle class lieutenants, lead to the establishment of the September Junta led by General Luis Altamirano and the exile of Alessandri. However, fears of a conservative restoration in progressive sectors of the army led to another coup in January, which ended with the establishment of the January Junta as interim government while waiting for Alessandri's return. The latter group was led by two colonels, Carlos Ibáñez del Campo and Marmaduke Grove. They returned Alessandri to the presidency and enacted his promised reforms by decree. A new Constitution encapsulating his proposed reforms was ratified in a plebiscite in September 1925. The new constitution gave increased powers to the presidency. Alessandri broke with the classical liberalism's policies of laissez-faire by creating a Central Bank and imposing a revenue tax. However, social discontents was crushed, leading to the Marusia massacre in 1925 followed by the La Coruña massacre.
The longest lasting of the 10 governments 1924-32 was that of General Carlos Ibáñez, who briefly held power in 1925 and again between 1927-31 in what was a de facto dictatorship. When constitutional rule was restored in 1932, a strong middle-class party, the Radicals, emerged. It became the key force in coalition governments for the next 20 years. The Seguro Obrero Massacre took place 1938, in the midst of a heated 3-way election campaign between the ultraconservative Gustavo Ross Santa María, the radical Popular Front's Pedro Aguirre Cerda, and the newly formed Popular Alliance candidate, Carlos Ibáñez del Campo. The National Socialist Movement of Chile supported Ibáñez. To pre-empt Ross's victory, the National Socialists mounted a coup d'état intended to take down the right wing government of Alessandri and place Ibáñez in power. During the period of Radical Party dominance (1932–52), the state increased its role in the economy. In 1952, voters returned Ibáñez to office for another 6 years. Jorge Alessandri succeeded Ibáñez in 1958. The 1964 presidential election of Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Montalva by an absolute majority initiated a period of major reform. Under the slogan "Revolution in Liberty", the Frei administration embarked on far-reaching social and economic programs, particularly in education, housing, and agrarian reform, including rural unionisation of agricultural workers. 1967, Frei encountered increasing opposition from leftists, who charged that his reforms were inadequate, and from conservatives, who found them excessive. At the end of his term, Frei had accomplished many noteworthy objectives, but he had not fully achieved his party's ambitious goals.
Popular Unity years
In the 1970 presidential election, Senator Salvador Allende Gossens won most votes in a three-way contest. He was a Marxist physician and member of Chile's Socialist Party, who headed the "Popular Unity" (UP) coalition of Socialist, Communist, Radical, and Social- Democratic Parties, along with dissident Christian Democrats, the Popular Unitary Action Movement (MAPU), and the Independent Popular Action. Despite pressure from the government of the United States, the Chilean Congress, keeping with tradition, conducted a runoff vote between the leading candidates, Allende and former president Jorge Alessandri. This procedure previously a formality, yet became quite fraught in 1970. After assurances of legality on Allende's part, the murder of the Army Commander-in-Chief, General René Schneider and Frei's refusal to form an alliance with Alessandri to oppose Allende, on the grounds that the Christian Democrats were a workers' party and could not make common cause with the oligarchs, Allende was chosen by a vote of 153 to 35. The Popular Unity platform included the nationalisation of US interests in Chile's major copper mines, the advancement of workers' rights, deepening of land reform, reorganisation of the national economy into socialised, mixed, and private sectors, a foreign policy of "international solidarity" and national independence and a new institutional order (the "people's state" or "poder popular"), including the institution of a unicameral congress. Immediately after the election, the United States expressed its disapproval and raised a number of economic sanctions against Chile. The CIA's website reports that the agency aided three Chilean opposition groups during that time and sought to instigate a coup to prevent Allende from taking office, known as Track I and Track II. In the first year of Allende's term, the short-term economic results of Economics Minister Pedro Vuskovic's expansive monetary policy were favourable: 12% industrial growth and 8.6% increase in GDP, accompanied by major declines in inflation (from 34.9% to 22.1%) and unemployment (down to 3.8%). Allende adopted measures including price freezes, wage increases, and tax reforms, which had the effect of increasing consumer spending and redistributing income downward. Joint public-private public works projects helped reduce unemployment. Much of the banking sector was nationalised. Many enterprises within the copper, coal, iron, nitrate, and steel industries were expropriated, nationalized, or subjected to state intervention. Industrial output increased sharply and unemployment fell during the administration's first year. However, these results were not sustainable and in 1972 the Chilean escudo had runaway inflation of 140%. An economic depression, begun in 1967 peaked in 1972, exacerbated by capital flight, plummeting private investment, and withdrawal of bank deposits in response to Allende's socialist program. Production fell and unemployment rose. The combination of inflation and government-mandated price-fixing led to the rise of black markets in rice, beans, sugar, and flour, and a "disappearance" of such basic commodities from supermarket shelves.
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Recognising that US intelligence was trying to destabilise his presidency, the KGB offered financial assistance to the first democratically-elected Marxist president. However, the reason behind the US covert actions against Allende concerned not the spread of Marxism but fear over losing control of its investments. 20% of total US foreign investment was tied up in Latin America. Part of the CIA's program involved a propaganda campaign that portrayed Allende as a would-be Soviet dictator, even though their own intelligence reports showed that Allende posed no threat to democracy. Richard Nixon’s administration inserted secret operatives in Chile, in order to destabilise Allende's government and international financial pressure restricted economic credit to Chile. The CIA funded opposition media and politicians. By 1972, the economic progress of Allende's first year had been reversed, and the economy was in crisis. Political polarisation increased, and both pro- and anti- government demonstrations became frequent. By 1973, Chilean society had grown highly polarised, between strong opponents and strong supporters of Salvador Allende and his government. Military actions and movements, separate from the civilian authority, began to manifest in the countryside. The Tanquetazo was a failed military coup d'état attempted against Allende in June 1973. In its "Agreement", 1973, the Chamber of Deputies asserted that Chilean democracy had broken down and called for "redirecting government activity", to restore constitutional rule. 1973, the Chilean military deposed Allende, who shot himself in the head to avoid capture as the Presidential Palace was surrounded and bombed. Subsequently, rather than restore governmental authority to the civilian legislature, Augusto Pinochet exploited his role as Commander of the Army to seize total power and to establish himself at the head of a junta. CIA involvement in the coup is documented; it released documents in 2000 acknowledging that Pinochet was one of their favoured alternatives to take power.

Posted by PetersF 17:40 Archived in Chile Tagged museum chile santiago wine vineyards rapa_nui Comments (0)

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