A Travellerspoint blog


Chile : Chiloë


20 Feb Chiloë with Penguins

We woke early as we were being collected at 9am to drive to the ferry port at Pargua. Going past Puerto Montt I spotted the signs to the Monte Verde archaeological site (an important discovery, see below), but had no time to visit. On arriving at Pargua, a small town, we boarded the car ferry and went to the observation deck to watch the sail through Chacao Channel, which separates Chiloe Island from the mainland. During the crossing see sea wolves, pelicans and seabirds (autochthon). We were lucky with the wildlife, spotting leaping dolphins, seals and some interesting birds, including an albatross. Chiloé Island (Isla de Chiloé), aka Greater Island of Chiloé (Isla Grande de Chiloé), is the largest island of the Chiloé Archipelago off the coast of Chile, in the Pacific Ocean. The island is located in southern Chile, in the Los Lagos (Lakes) Region. The northwest of Chiloé Island in Chiloé National Park has a great diversity of marine fauna, including blue whale, sei whale, Chilean dolphins and Peale's dolphins; sea lions, marine otters, Magellanic penguins and Humboldt penguins. With an area of 8,394 sq km, Chiloé Island is the 2nd largest island in Chile, after Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, and 5th largest in South America. It is separated from the Chilean mainland by Chacao Strait (Canal Chacao) to the north, Gulf of Ancud (Golfo de Ancud) and Gulf of Corcovado (Golfo Corcovado) to the east; the Pacific Ocean to the west, and Chonos Archipelago to the south, across the Boca del Guafo. The island is 190 km north to south, and 55/65 km wide.
The ferry berthed at Chacao pier, and we walked along the wooden shoreline walkway, spotting vast numbers of birds, including Black-necked Swans, Shearwaters, Petrels, Chilean Skua, Cormorants and a group of Peruvian Pelicans. At the end of the walkway we saw our guide with binoculars and it turned out he was a bird enthusiast, so he could tell us what everything was. Walking on from the short pier took us to the delightful village of Chacao, with its houses and church built with Alerce wood.
Chacao Town/ San Antonio de Chacao, belongs to the commune of Ancud, and is located in the northern end of Chiloe. It is the north entrance to the archipelago of Chiloe and has the main jetty linking it to the mainland Pargua area, through a year round ferry service. Founded in 1567 by Spanish conquistadors, it grew until it became a small town. From 1655 it was the residence of the governor and troops (previously in Carelmapu), becoming the main military garrison of Chiloé province.
Its main attractions are the Church of San Antonio de Chacao, whose two towers are original wood buildings of 1710, the Plaza de Chacao, where two ancient cannons are on display in Battery swirls. In 1741 the English navigator John Byron was imprisoned here, later describing it as a small fortress of earth, with a ditch and palisade, a few mouldy canyons without carriages, that would not serve for the slightest defense of the bay". In 1768 the village was depopulated by order of Carlos de Beranger and Renaud, who moved the people to the newly founded San Carlos de Chiloé. Three military batteries were then built: Swirls, Pampa de Lobos and La Poza, which were the scene of several clashes during the conquest of Chiloe in 1824. The church was interesting as it demonstrated the boat-shape interior typical of the island churches. Indeed, Chiloe is noted for its churches, especially the Jesuit built ones. The tower of the church is not ancient as it was as it was eaten by termites and has had to be rebuilt! Opposite was someone posing as an El Trauco, with people paying to photo him.
Some myths of Chiloe:
�El Trauco, one of the most important demons in Chilote mythology, aka Huelle/ Pompón del Monte/ Chauco. He is the most feared demon of the island. He has a terrifying appearance, like a vine-covered walking tree with stumps for limbs. He eats forest fruits such as “naranjitas” (little oranges) produced by a Chilote plant, the quilineja (Luzuriaga radicans), a creeper on trees where there is high humidity. The villagers believe that when a young, single woman gets pregnant it is the result of her encounter with Trauco.
El Caleuche, a phantom ship of wizards and witches that sails along the south Pacific, appearing close to beaches during night. When the tide is low you can distinguish it in the fog, lit up with music on board, as if a party were in full swing. Those who witness it, generally fishermen, turn into seals or sea lions, or are borne away on the Caleuche.
La Pincoya, a blonde lady in a seaweed dress that patrols the beaches to protect the ocean and save the shipwrecked. It is her task to call the fish, so their abundance or scarcity depends on her. It is believed that when a fisherman witnesses her dancing towards the sea, it is a sign of abundance, but away from it is a time of scarcity.
El Cuchivilu, an aquatic animal, is very important in Chiloé mythology. It destroys fishing pens. It is a mix between sea lion, snake and pig and lives in the lagoons or swamps that characterise Chiloé.
El Camahueto, similar to a calf, with a golden horn on its forehead, can be found in lagoons and rivers, where it sleeps for 25 years. When it wakes up, it destroys everything in its path, leaving behind the characteristic furrows that can be seen all over the island.
Leaving, we saw the Church of Chacao Viejo, a couple of km east, bordering the coast, in the sector Chacao Viejo, corresponding to the site of the first Spanish site, where a wooden church stands on top of the walls of the old colonial fort. On one side is Plaza de Chacao Viejo, where two guns are displayed.

We now took the car again to drive on the smaller roads around the edge of Chiloe Island, arriving at Caulín beach, famed for its oysters, bird sanctuary and rich marine fauna. Our helpful guide pointed out all sorts of birds, including ibis, herons, oystercatchers and even a stork. There was a small church in a field, with a number of ibis sitting on it, followed by a long beach with small beach houses along it. Isla Lacao, just offshore, is a renowned sanctuary. Caulin Beach- Between the port of Chacao and City of Ancud lies Caulín Bay, a singular spot on the Eastern coast of Chiloé Island, with of a great variety of birds. The beautiful beach becomes larger when the tide is low where flamingos, black-necked swans, herons and seagulls, to name a few, stop during their migration. Thus, visitors to the bay may observe a natural show of colourful beauty. In these surroundings, the inhabitants of the quiet community of Caulín carry out agricultural and fishing activities. The beach was declared a Bird Sanctuary, a designation celebrated with a festival every January. In turn, the rescue of cultural traditions has enabled the town of Caulín to show visitors handicrafts representing the Huiliche culture, as well as regional festivals such as “la mariscada” (a seafood festival), celebrated when the sea recedes one km and the beach is sown with seafood the villagers pick up to produce their typical dishes, such as curanto. Every year, over 60 sea species populate Caulín. The most outstanding birds include black-necked swans, herons and seagulls, to name a few, stop during their migration. Thus, visitors to the bay may observe a natural show of bird beauty. The inhabitants of this quiet community of Caulín carry out agricultural and fishing activities. The beach was declared a Bird Sanctuary, a designation celebrated with a festival every January. In turn, the rescue of cultural traditions has enabled the town of Caulín to show visitors handicrafts representing the Huiliche culture, as well as regional festivals such as “la mariscada” (a seafood festival), celebrated when the sea recedes one km and the beach is sown with seafood the villagers pick up to produce their typical dishes, such as curanto. Every year, over 60 sea species populate Caulín. The most outstanding birds include black-necked swans, which reach a population of 1,500 specimens in the summer, and pink flamingos, with thousands in autumn/ winter. There are also zarapitos (small birds of Scolopacidae family), ralladores/ rayador (birds who fish on their flight, from the Rynchopinae family), and several kinds of ducks, herons and seagulls that fly continuously over the shore.
Birds on Caulin Beach: Black-faced Ibis, American Oystercatcher with Andean Gulls, Southern Lapwing, Snowy Egret, Egret and Sandpiper, Whimbrel, Oystercatcher, Sandpiper and gulls, Black-necked Swans

We continued on the smaller roads, seeing many birds, especially lapwings, but also hawks, and even a chucao tapaculo (not common). Our guide explained that Chilotes (people of Chiloe) are different to the mainland Mapuche (although a similar ethnic group), being shorter and darker. He pointed some out to us en route (although we saw very few people anyway). Apparently drunkenness is a real problem on the island as there is little in the way of jobs and an abundance of local hooch (Yerba mate). The farms we saw were small and generally of a subsistence type, with a few crops and animals.
We arrived outside Ancud City (though really a town), and drove up to a high viewpoint before crossing the long bridge to drive to the late 18th century San Antonio Fort; located in the highest part of the city, one of the last Spanish fortifications in Chile. Ancud was once a rather wealthy place with gracious buildings, palafitos and a railway line. but the 1960 earthquake decimated the town. Today it is a quaint, sprawling town peppered with native architecture leading down to the spectacular waterfront.
ancud-chilo-chile_33335512066_o.jpgThe city was established in 1768 to function as the capital of the archipelago and held that position until 1982. Numerous glaciations have dredged the Chacao Channel to the north, separating Chiloé Island from mainland Chile to the north, marking the border between two natural regions of Chile, Zona Sur to the north and Zona Austral to the south. The Pacific Ocean lies on the west as the Chilean Coastal Range continues as a chain of islands. As consequence of the Seven Years' War the Spanish authorities had the coastal fortification system of Chile updated and expanded. By recommendation of former governor Antonio Narciso de Santa María the Spanish founded the "city-fort" of Ancud in 1767/8 and separated Chiloé from the Captaincy General of Chile into a direct dependency of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Summers are mild with Jan average of 15.0 °C.
Temperatures rarely exceed 30 °C. The Colonial fort of San Antonio is part of the fort system of Ancud together with the nearby fort of Agüi is one of 4 fort systems of colonial Chiloé. It is made of 2 forts and 4 batteries. Fuerte Real de San Carlos was built as late as 1824 by orders of Antonio de Quintanilla, the last Spanish governor of Chiloé. The arsenal (polvorín) of this can still be seen at the centre of a small plaza. The battery of San Antonio is the best preserved part of the fort system. We were dropped off outside the fort and walked down the lane into a very small fort with a few cannons, a statue and a great view of Quilo Bay. It didn’t take long to see the fort and we soon rejoined the car.

Chiloé Island/ Chonos Archipelago are a southern extension of the Chilean coastal range, which runs north and south, parallel to the Pacific coast and Andes Mountains. The Chilean Central Valley lies between the coastal mountains and the Andes, of which the Gulfs of Ancud and Corcovado form the southern extension. Mountains run north-south along the spine of the island. The east coast is deeply indented, with natural harbours and numerous smaller islands. The Alfaguara project (blue whale project), conducted by the Cetacean Conservation Centre, is based at Puñihuil (north-west coast). The project combines long-term research, educational and programs for marine conservation combined with sustainable development of local communities. Chiloe’s history began with the arrival of its first human inhabitants more than 7,000 years ago. Spread along the coast of Chiloé are a number of middens containing mollusc shells, stone tools and bonfire remains, indicate the presence of nomadic groups dedicated to the collection of marine creatures (clams, mussels etc) and to hunting and fishing. When the Spanish conquistadores arrived on Chiloé Island in the 16th Century, the island was inhabited by the Chono, Huilliche and Cunco peoples. The original peoples navigated the treacherous waters of the Chiloé Archipelago in boats called dalcas with skill that impressed the Spaniards. The first Spaniard to sight Chiloé was Alonso de Camargo in 1540, travelling to Peru. An expedition ordered by Pedro de Valdivia, captain Francisco de Ulloa reached the Chacao Channel in 1553 and explored the islands forming the archipelago, and is thus considered the first discoverer of Chiloé. In 1558, Spanish soldier García Hurtado de Mendoza began an expedition, which would culminate in the Chiloé archipelago being claimed for the Spanish crown. The city of Castro was founded in 1567. The island was originally called New Galicia but Chiloé, “place of seagulls” in the Huilliche language, was ultimately given to the island. Jesuit missionaries arrived on Chiloé at the turn of the 17th Century and built chapels throughout the archipelago, more than 150 wooden churches built in traditional style can be found on the islands, many are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Following the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1767, the Franciscans assumed responsibility for Chiloé. Chiloé only became part of the Chilean republic in 1826, eight years after independence and following the two failed campaigns for independence in 1820 and 1824. From 1843, a large number of Chilotes (as inhabitants of the island are called) migrated to Patagonia in search of work, mainly in Punta Arenas, but as conditions in Chiloé improved this migration decreased. Isla Grande de Chiloé is the continent's fifth-largest island and home to a fiercely independent, seafaring people. Immediately apparent are changes in architecture and cuisine: tejuelas, the famous Chilote wood shingles; palafitos (houses mounted on stilts along the water's edge); the iconic wooden churches (16 of which are Unesco World Heritage sites); and the renowned meat, potato and seafood stew, curanto. A closer look reveals a rich spiritual culture that is based on a distinctive mythology of witchcraft, ghost ships and forest gnomes. All of the above is weaved among landscapes that are wet, wind-swept and lush, with undulating hills, wild and remote national parks, and dense forests, giving Chiloé a distinct flavour unique in South America.
It was along the coast on another small road a viewpoint over Teguaco Beach (huge waves, unsafe for swimming) and Puñihuil beach. The small hut’s rickety landing made a good viewpoint and we could watch the vultures circling around. Then it was on down, fairly steeply, to Puñihuil beach itself.
The guide said he would arrange the boat to the islands, so we went for a coffee at Costa Pacifica. When we got back it was organised and all we had to do was put on our life jackets (and annoyingly NOT our suncream which we’d forgotten as it was raining when we’d left Puerto Varas). We got onto the platform, which wheeled us into the sea to get the boat, which they then pushed off. The islands are forbidden to land on or swim by due to the nesting penguins. This is a unique place as it is the only place in the world where both Magellan and Humboldt Penguins nest. The boat guide did his best in English and we got the gist of it, mainly because he pointed and said “Look”, which was generally enough! As well as the penguins, we saw Red-legged (pic 1), Neotropic (pic 2), Imperial and Rock cormorants, Kelp geese (pic 4 female/ pic 5 male and female), Diving petrels, Magellanic and Black oystercatchers and Fuegian Steamer Duck (pic 3). The Fuegian Steamer duck is in fact a flightless duck as its wings are too small to allow true flight, being used to paddle-skim over water. It’s only distantly related to true ducks and has no other relatives. What was amazing was how the penguins managed to climb up quite steep slopes, mainly by hopping and jumping. A natural formation, looking like a fat man or a bear is called The Bear. A local storm petrel, Pincoya, was only discovered in 2011.

The Magellanic penguin
Spheniscus magellanicus is a South American penguin, breeding in Chile, Argentina and the Falkland Islands. It is the most numerous of the Spheniscus penguins. Its nearest relatives are the African, the Humboldt penguin and the Galápagos penguins. The Magellanic penguin was named after Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who spotted the birds in 1520. The species is listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN. Magellanic penguins are medium-sized penguins 61–76 cm tall and 2.7-6.5 kg. The males are larger than the females, and the weight of both drops while the parents nurture their young. Adults have black backs and white abdomens. There are two black bands between the head and the breast, with the lower band shaped in an inverted horseshoe. The head is black with a broad white border that runs from behind the eye, around the black ear-coverts and chin, and joins at the throat. Chicks and younger penguins have grey-blue backs, with a more faded grey-blue colour on their chest. Magellanic penguins live up to 25 years in the wild, but as much as 30 years in captivity. Young birds usually have a blotched pattern on their feet, which fades as they grow up into adulthood. By the time these birds reach about ten years of age, their feet usually become all black. Like other species of penguins, the Magellanic penguin has very rigid wings used to swim under water. Magellanic penguins feed in the water, preying on cuttlefish, squid, krill, and other crustaceans, and ingest seawater with their prey. Their salt-excreting gland rids the salt from their bodies. Adult penguins can regularly dive to depths of 20-50m to forage for prey. During the breeding season males and females have similar foraging and diving patterns as well as diet composition, however bone tissue analysis suggests that diets diverge post-season when limitations imposed by chick rearing are removed.
Magellanic penguins travel in large flocks when hunting for food. In the breeding season, they gather in large nesting colonies in southern Chile. The breeding season begins in September and extends into late Feb/ March when the chicks are mature enough to leave the colonies. Nests of 2 eggs are built under bushes or in burrows. Incubation lasts 39–42 days, a task which the parents share in 10- to 15-day shifts. The chicks are cared for by both parents for 29 days and are fed every two to three days. The male and female penguins take turns hatching, as they forage far away from their nests. The males return from the sea on the day the second egg is laid to take their turn incubating. The second egg is generally larger and with higher temperature than the first egg, so the first one is more likely to survive, but generally both of the chicks are raised successfully. Magellanic penguins mate with the same partner year after year. The male reclaims his burrow from the previous year and waits to reconnect with his female. The females recognise their mates through their call alone. Millions of these penguins live on the coasts of Argentina and Chile, but the species is classified as threatened due to the vulnerability of large breeding colonies to oil spills. The decline of fish populations is also responsible, as well as predators such as sea lions, giant petrels, and leopard seals which prey on the chicks. Climate change has displaced fish populations, so Magellanic penguins must swim an extra 40 km for fish.

The Humboldt penguin
Spheniscus humboldti (Chilean penguin, Peruvian penguin, or patranca) is a South American penguin that breeds in coastal Chile and Peru. The penguin is named after the cold water current it swims in, itself named after explorer Alexander von Humboldt. The species is listed as Vulnerable by the IUCN. Humboldt penguins are medium-sized penguins, growing to 56–70 cm and 3.6-5.9 kg. They have a black head with a white border that runs from behind the eye, around the black ear-coverts and chin, and joins at the throat. They have blackish-grey upperparts and whitish underparts, with a black breast-band that extends down the flanks to the thigh. They have a fleshy-pink base to the bill. Juveniles have dark heads and no breast-band. They have spines on their tongue, which they use to hold their prey. Humboldt penguins nest on islands and rocky coasts, burrowing holes in guano and sometimes using scrapes or caves. In South America the Humboldt penguin is found only along the Pacific coast and the range of the Humboldt penguin overlaps that of the Magellanic penguin on the central Chilean coast. Due to declining population caused by over-fishing, climate change, and ocean acidification, the Humboldt penguin is threatened. Historically it was the victim of guano over- exploitation. The current population is between 3,300 and 12,000. In 2009 at a German zoo two adult male Humboldt penguins adopted an abandoned egg, hatched, raised and fed the chick. In 2014, Gumbs and Kermit, two male Humboldt Penguins who had pair bonded a number of years earlier successfully hatched and reared an egg given to them.
After a brilliant trip and plenty of time to enjoy the penguins we headed back to shore where our guide met us and recommended the nearby restaurant of El Rincón De Puñihuil. We ordered, as suggested, the curanto. This is basically a mix of seafood and meat (mainly chicken and sausage) with dumplings (milcaos). The seafood, especially the clams and mussels, were enormous. An unusual addition was piure (red sea squirt), but very tasty. Steve ordered chips, but we no way needed them (which was lucky because they forgot the guide’s food and he ended up eating the chips instead). It was quite a long meal, so after we needed a walk. At the bottom of a wooden stair we paid a girl so we could walk up to the viewpoint over the islands, which was really worth the view. Then we collected our car from the beach and drove out of Punihuil (a one way beach system) to head back to Ancud market. Crossing the wild beaches of Pumillahue, we took the more major road back to the town.
Puñihuil is a cove with a small community on the northwestern coast of the Isla Grande de Chiloe. The Islotes de Puñihuil Natural Monument, three small islands, lie west and north of the cove and are the only known shared breeding site for Humboldt and Magellanic penguins. The government has recently introduced a licence system for the visiting boats, so only 6 operators are allowed (1 boat each).
On the way we spotted a tree full of Austral Parakeets. We liked them, but apparently the locals don’t because they strip the crops. We had half an hour to explore the market, which was ample. The lower floors were food, mainly dried meat, artisanal honey (we purchased some off a seriously stoned farmer) and various fruit/ veg. Some of our favourites were nalca or Chilean rhubarb (nothing to do with our rhubarb) that we’d seen growing earlier. Gunnera tinctoria (giant or Chilean rhubarb) is native to southern Chile. It is a large-leaved perennial that grows to 2+m tall. It is edible both by the stem and the erect spikes of cone-shaped inflorescences (to 1m) from spring to early summer, with small flowers. The fruit is orange. The number of seeds is c250,000 per plant. Another unusual one was Chiloe potatoes (Papas Chilotes) small round, or fingerling potatoes with hues from yellow to pink to a purplish blue. A stall selling marijuana (legal in Chile) did not tempt us at all! The upper balcony area was gift and clothes stalls, all selling much the same stuff, so I got a small alerce wood pudu deer statue that was easy to transport home.
We were getting tired, so re-found the car, which drove back to the port by the main road. The ferry (we were the last car on) went right through a colony of seals, which was really nice. Then, back to Puerto Varas. Ironically, as we headed back the mist cleared and we finally had a view of the snow capped volcanoes for which the area is so famous! We were not hungry at all, so we thought we’d just get a drink and an ice cream. On the lakeshore we sat outside at Cafe Mawen and enjoyed one of their famous hot chocolates and helados. The “pirate” ship was anchored just offshore, completing the volcano-lake-boat picture.

The South
Although many lakes can be found in the Andean and coastal regions of central Chile, the south (Sur de Chile) is the country's most lacustrine area. Southern Chile stretches from below the Bío-Bío River at 37° south latitude to Chacao channel at 42° south latitude. In this lake district of Chile, the valley between the Andes and the coastal range is closer to sea level, and the hundreds of rivers that descend from the Andes form lakes, some quite large, as they reach the lower elevations. They drain into the ocean through other rivers, some of which (principally the Calle-Calle River, which flows by the city of Valdivia) are the only ones in the whole country navigable for any stretch. Central Valley's southernmost portion is submerged in the ocean and forms the Gulf of Ancud. Isla de Chiloé, with its rolling hills, is the last important elevation of the coastal range of mountains. The south is one of the rainiest areas in the world. One of the wettest spots, Valdivia, has an annual rainfall of 2,535.4 mm. The summer months of Jan/ Feb are the driest, with a monthly average of 67 mm. Temperatures are moderate, the two summer months average 16.7 °C. The lakes are remarkably beautiful. The snow-covered Andes form a constant backdrop to vistas of clear blue or even turquoise waters, as at Todos los Santos Lake. The rivers that descend from the Andes rush over volcanic rocks, forming numerous white-water sections and waterfalls. The vegetation, including many ferns, is lush green. Some sections consist of old-growth forests, and in all seasons, but especially spring/ summer, there are wildflowers and flowering trees. The pastures in the northern section around Osorno, are well suited for raising cattle; milk, cheese, and butter are important products. All kinds of berries grow in the area, some of which are exported, and freshwater farming of trout and salmon has developed. The lumber industry is also important. Many of Chile's distinctive animal species have been decimated, pushed farther and farther into the remaining wilderness by human occupation of the land. This is the case with the huemul, a large deer, and the Chilean condor; both are on the national coat of arms. The remaining Chilean cougars, bigger than their Californian cousins, have been driven to isolated national parks in the south by farmers who hunt them because they occasionally kill sheep and goats.
Early history (pre-1540)
About 10,000 years ago, migrating groups settled in the fertile valleys and coastal areas of Chile. Pre-Hispanic Chile was home to over a dozen different Amerindian societies. The current theory is that the initial arrival of humans to the continent took place along the Pacific coast southwards in a rapid expansion preceding the Clovis culture, backed by findings in Monte Verde archaeological site, which predates the Clovis site by thousands of years. Settlement sites from very early human habitation in Chile including the Cueva del Milodon and Pali Aike Crater's lava tube.
Monte Verde archaeological site nr Puerto Montt, c16,500 BC, pre-dates the Clovis culture by 1000 years (contradicting the c13,500 Clovis model of American settlement). The site was discovered when a mastodon bone found in Chinchihuapi Creek, a tributary of Maullín Rv, in an anaerobic bog. Finding 2 large hearths and wooden posts from 12 huts, Monte Verde has reshaped archaeologists thoughts about the earliest inhabitants of the Americas. Radiocarbon dating of 14,800 BC and possibly 33,000 BC, establish Monte Verde as the oldest-known site of human habitation in the Americas. Previously, the earliest site had been Clovis, New Mexico, c13,500-13,000 BC.
The dates of Monte Verde make it a key factor in the debate over the first migration route from Asia to North America. Before its discovery, the accepted theory was the overland route, from Asia across the Bering Strait, then spreading throughout North America. However, Monte Verde weakens this theory. Prior to 13,000 BP, the Cordilleran Glacier had not melted enough to become an ice-free corridor. Monte Verde thus dates prior to the glacial melt, when the desolate, icy landscape of the Americas could not have permitted vegetation to sustain people or herded animals. This has led to a new theory of coastal migration, where people migrated down the western coasts of North and South America. Monte Verde is 8,000 miles south of the Bering Strait, an unlikely trek by foot, especially on ice. Remains of 22 varieties of seaweed (many still used today) argue for marine knowledge. Together with a relative lack of stone tools, it appears these were hunter-gatherer-fishermen, rather than big-game hunters like the Clovis. It is feasible they travelled along the coast by boat or along the shoreline. The only human settlement site in Southern Chile of comparable age is Pilauco Bajo in Osorno, 12,500–11,000BC. There is evidence of giant sloth, Patagonian panther, llama and horse (which later died out in the Americas) being hunted. The Chinchorro culture, a coastal culture of north Chile/ south Peru, originated c9,000 BC. Other coastal sites, Quebrada Jaguay and Tacahuay (Peru), c13,000-12,000 BC.
It is possible to classify the indigenous people into 3 major cultural groups

  • northern people, influenced by pre-Incan cultures.
  • agrarian Mapuche (Araucanian) culture, between the river Choapa and island of Chiloé
  • Patagonian culture of various nomadic tribes, who supported themselves through fishing and hunting.
  • far south groups in the southern tip and Tierra del Fuego archipelago in much smaller numbers

1. The Inca Empire briefly extended into northern Chile, where they collected tribute from small groups of fishermen and oasis farmers but were unable to establish a strong presence.
2. The Mapuche are the indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile/ southwest Argentina/ north Patagonia. The term refers to various groups who share a common social, religious and economic structure, and a common linguistic heritage as Mapudungun speakers. Their influence once extended from Aconcagua River to the Chiloé Archipelago. Today they make up 80% of Chile’s indigenous people, and 9% of the total population. They are particularly concentrated in Araucanía. Mapuche can refer to both the Picunche (people of north), Huilliche (people of South) and Moluche/Nguluche from Araucanía, or exclusively to the Moluche/Nguluche. Mapuche economy was agrarian, with a social organisation based on the extended family under a lonko (chief). In times of war, they united in larger groupings and elected a toki (axe-bearer) to lead them. The Araucanian Mapuche inhabited the valleys between the Itata and Toltén rivers. The Huilliche and Cunco lived south, up to the Chiloé Archipelago. In the 17-19th centuries, Mapuche groups migrated east to the Andes and pampas, fusing with the Poya and Pehuenche. The Spanish referred to the Mapuche as Araucanians, now considered pejorative. The name was likely derived from the placename rag ko (Spanish for clay-water), rather than the Quechua word awqa, meaning "rebel, enemy”.

e839d0f0-9544-11eb-b9bb-35ac1b35db75.jpge7ef8180-9544-11eb-8c51-61eabea3148a.JPGThe Mapuche in central Chile were more settled while those in the south combined slash-and-burn with hunting. Of the 3 Araucanian groups, the one that led the fiercest resistance to attempts to seize their territory were the Mapuche (People of the land). The Inca attempted to extend south but encountered fierce resistance. During their attempts at conquest in 1460 and 1491, the Inca established forts in Central Valley of Chile, but they could not colonise the region. The Mapuche fought against Sapa Tupac Inca Yupanqui (c.1471– 1493), ending in a bloody 3-day Battle of the Maule, halting the Inca conquest at Maule river, which became the boundary between the Incan empire and Mapuche lands. The Mapuche are the direct descendants of the ancient pre-Hispanic cultures of Pitrén (100-1100AD) and El Vergel (1100- 1450AD) that lived between Bío Bío River and Reloncaví Sound. By the time of the Spanish arrival, the Mapuche language of Mapudungun was in use from the Choapa River to Chiloé. Spanish conquest in the 16th century seems to have led to the amalgamation of several indigenous groups and the forging of closer social/cultural ties, forming a Mapuche identity. Scholars speculate that the total Araucanian population may have numbered 1.5 million when the Spanish arrived in the 1530s; a century of European conquest and disease reduced that to 700,000. The Spanish expansion into Chile came from Peru. In 1541 Pedro de Valdivia founded Santiago. The northern Mapuche tribes, the Promaucaes and Picunches, fought unsuccessfully against Spanish conquest. In 1550 de Valdivia travelled south to conquer more Mapuche territory. Between 1550-3 the Spanish founded cities (Concepción, Valdivia, Imperial, Villarrica, Angol) and forts (Arauco, Purén and Tucapel) in Mapuche lands. Further expansion engaged them in the Arauco War against the Mapuche, a sporadic conflict that lasted nearly 350 years. From 1550-98, the Mapuche frequently laid siege to Spanish settlements in Araucanía. Mapuche numbers decreased significantly as wars, epidemics and forced gold mining labour decimated the population. In 1598 a party of warriors from Purén led by Pelantaro, returning south from a raid in Chillán, ambushed Martín García Óñez de Loyola and his troops. All the Spaniards died, save cleric Bartolomé Pérez, who was taken prisoner, and soldier Bernardo de Pereda. The Mapuche then began a general uprising that destroyed all the cities south of Biobío River. A general uprising among the Mapuche and Huilliche followed this Battle of Curalaba. The Spanish cities of Angol, Imperial, Osorno, Valdivia and Villarrica were destroyed or abandoned. With the exception of the Chiloé Archipelago, all Chilean territory south of BíoBío Rv was freed from Spanish rule. The Araucanian Nation crossed the Andes to conquer parts of modern Argentina. During the conquest, they quickly added horses and European weaponry to their clubs, bows and arrows. They became adept at raiding Spanish settlements and held off the Spaniards until the late 19th century. Some Mapuche mingled with Spanish during colonial times, and their descendants make up the large group of mestizos in Chile, but the Mapuche in Araucanía/ Patagonia remained independent until the Chilean Occupation of Araucanía and the Argentine Conquest of the Desert in the late 19th century. Today, Mapuche are fighting over land and indigenous rights in Argentina and Chile. The Araucanians inspired the Chileans to mythologise them as the nation's first heroes, a status that did nothing to elevate the wretched living standards of their descendants. In 1910, the country’s first indigenous organisation, Sociedad Caupolicán, brought forward a series of petitions. From 1960-73, Mapuche people attempted unsuccessfully to recover their seized territory through the Agrarian Reform. At the same time many Mapuche migrated to Santiago, and by the end of the 1970s, 70% of the Mapuche people lived in urban areas, mostly of them in extreme poverty. The country’s emerging capitalist economic model perceived the “indigenous problem” as a concern related to rural peasants. In 1976, the military government passed the Law of Community Division, which sought to privatise communally held Mapuche land and force people to place it under individual ownership. In the 1980s, poverty was on the rise among the Mapuche population, driving them to the cities and reducing the number of pure-blood natives. New indigenous laws in the late 1980s sought the assimilation of the country’s native groups into mainstream Chilean society, but the reestablishment of democracy helped to reverse this. The Indigenous Law of 1991 recognised, protected and promoted the development of Chile’s ethnic groups. Chile’s pre-Hispanic Mapuche population is estimated to have been around one million. Today, there are 600,000 Mapuche in Chile, 87.3% of the indigenous population. At the time of the arrival of Europeans, the Mapuche had constructed a network of forts and complex defensive buildings as well as ceremonial constructions such as earthwork mounds recently discovered near Purén. They quickly adopted iron metal-working (they already worked copper).
They learned horseback-riding and the use of cavalry from the Spanish, along with the cultivation of wheat and sheep. In the 300-year coexistence between the Spanish colonies and relatively well- delineated autonomous Mapuche regions, they develop trade. Such trade lies at the heart of the Mapuche silver- working tradition, for they wrought their jewellery from the widely dispersed quantity of Spanish and Chilean silver coins. The Mapuche combined new Spanish techniques with sheet metal work, traditionally used to manufacture copper jewellery. Over time, silver Mapuche jewellery became a central feature of Mapuche women’s traditional attire and part of their bridal dowry. Typical pieces include the chain link belt (trarilonko), earrings (chaway, upul), breast ornaments (trapelakucha, sikil, runi, llol-llol), breast pins (akucha), and pins used to hold shawls (tupu, ponzón), as well as silver rivets adorning leather and woven straps used for their horses. Silver was also used to make the horse tack, notably beautifully crafted Mapuche horseshoes, spurs and stirrups. Woven cloth is a central element. Usage and traditional symbolism determined which colours and designs were used to make ponchos (makuñ), woven sashes (trarihue), blankets (pontro), bedcovers and woollen bags. Mapuche pottery has its own emblematic pieces, including metawe, earthenware jugs in asymmetric designs made to resemble animals such as ducks, chickens and frogs. The Mapuche are known for their woodwork in beautiful native hardwood species such as roble, laurel, raulí, alerce and coigüe. They produce range domestic utensils (platters, bowls, spoons) and ritual objects such as the kollong (mask), rewe (ceremonial altar) and chemamull (carved tree trunks with multiple heads used for funeral rites). Less well known is Mapuche basketry, which produced heavy, densely woven baskets. Mapuche art includes music and dance, with instruments such as the kultrún and truruka used to produce the unique sounds of traditional rites.
Central to Mapuche cosmology is the idea of a creator called ngenechen, embodied in four components: an old man (fucha/futra/cha chau), an old woman (kude/kuse), a young man and a young woman. They believe in the two worlds of Wenu Mapu and Minche Mapu. Mapuche have spirits that co-exist with humans and animals in the natural world. The most well known Mapuche ritual ceremony is the Ngillatun, a major communal event of spiritual and social importance. The main groups of spirits in Mapuche mythology are the Pillan and Wangulen (ancestral spirits), the Ngen (nature spirits), and the wekufe (evil spirits). Their god of evil, Gualichu was blamed for every disease or calamity. Gualichu could enter people's body or objects and then an exorcism had to be performed to expel him. He was a purely spiritual being and there is no depiction of him. He was believed to live underground. The machi (shaman), usually an older woman, is an important part of Mapuche culture. The machi performs ceremonies for warding off evil, for rain, the cure of diseases, and has an extensive knowledge of medicinal herbs, gained during apprenticeship. The main healing ceremony performed by the machi is the machitun. The legend of Trentren Vilu and Caicai Vilu is related to the geography and origin of the Chiloean archipelago, and mountains of southern Chile. These were said to be created by a fierce battle between two mythical snakes, Trentren Vilu (trentren="related to earth", vilu="snake") and Caicai/ Coicoi Vilu (Caicai="related to water", vilu="snake"). Trentren Vilu is the god of Earth, a generous spirit and protector of life on land. Caicai Vilu is the god of water and its creatures. Thousands of years ago, what is now Chiloé island (and the smaller islands around it) was part of mainland Chile. One day a monstrous serpent appeared and flooded the land, submerging all, even the mountains. Trentren Vilu attacked and won the battle, but was only able to raise some of the land, leaving some valleys flooded and creating the islands. Caicai Vilu left his representative controlling the seas, the king Millalobo (Millalonco), who was conceived when a beautiful woman fell in love with a sea lion. Other spirits are the Cherufe, evil humanoid creatures made of rock and magma that inhabit the magma pools deep in volcanoes and are the source of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and meteorites. The only way to appease the Cherufe's appetite was to throw a sacrificial victim into the bowels of its volcanic home. Much like the European dragon, the Cherufe's preferred delicacy was a virgin.
Until the 16th century, Mapuche society was organised in a polygamous patrilineal kinship system. In the early 17th Century, the Cacique (tribe) became more prominent, with groups organised into a military hierarchy, and the wartime leaders (tokis) emerged to play a strategic role in Mapuche society, while colonial authorities attempted unsuccessfully to bolster the role of the lonkos, local community chiefs. After the Mapuche were defeated in 1881, a protectorate system was introduced and the authorities began handing over land to family based communities, identifying each estate with the name of the corresponding cacique or lonko. The establishment of these communities did little to integrate the Mapuche into Chilean society, as their society had no concept or practice prior to the establishment of this regime. Today, a Mapuche community is a primarily patrilineal consanguineous group established when an indigenous land title was granted to a chief and his family. Prior to the 16th Century, the Mapuche lived a dispersed nomadic existence with slash and burn horticulture. Spanish chroniclers used several names to identify local groups, including Levo, Lof, and Rehue, probably because of their cultural differences or spatial separation. Local groups were composed of different “houses” separated from each other and in which the males of each lineage lived with their wives (usually from another group) and unattached daughters. The ruka was the traditional dwelling of the extended Mapuche family. These structures differed in size and form, being rectangular, circular or elliptical. The most common type had a strong frame of roble hardwood and was covered on top and sometimes on the sides with bunches of straw to provide insulation from the extreme cold and to protect the inhabitants from the rain. These dwellings had no windows and only a single entrance, which faced eastward toward the Puelmapu, the Land of the East, homeland of the Gods. Inside, the hearth (kutral) was placed at the centre and always kept burning, coating the walls with soot. The Mapuche used very little furniture, mainly wankus (small stools made from a single block of wood) and beds along the walls. Domestic implements hung from the ceiling and walls, and special spaces were used to store food. The traditional ruka, which is no longer in use, was built by the community and inaugurated with a rukatún ceremony that included dances with kollong masks.
The Bear, Chiloe Island

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Chile : Punta Arenas

Sara Braun and Naval museums

21st Feb Lan Chile - LA 287 Puerto Montt (PMC) Dep: 10:30 Punta Arenas (PUQ) Arr: 12:40 Hotel Chalet Chapital. La Luna (lunch) www.laluna.cl Naval museum. Coffee at Cafe Tapiz
22nd Feb Wed Transfer to Hosteria Las Torres, Torres del Paine semi-private with lunch at Cerro Negro Ranch
23rd Feb Thur Full Paine + Glaciar Grey trek (whole day)
24th Feb Fri Horseback riding Lago Nordenskjöld tour am Laguna Inges walk pm
25th Feb Sat Laguna Amarga and Azul trek am Lago Sarmiento trek pm
26th Feb Sun Patagón trek am Silencio Valley and Horns trek pm
27th Feb Mon Horse riding to Bosque de Lenga Transfer Hosteria Las Torres to Hotel Chapital, Punta Arenas 1pm La Luna http://www.laluna.cl
28th Feb Tue Punta Arenas- museo Nao Victoria, La Chocolatta http://www.chocolatta.cl, seashore monument, Salesian museum. Lunch at Fuente Hamburg. Dinner at La Cuisine
1st Mar Wed Flight LAN280 Punta Arenas to Santiago via Puerto Montt/ Santiago to London

21st Feb Arrival at Punta Arenas

We had an early morning rise and a pleasant breakfast with the Chiloe honey we’d brought. Our taxi came early, which was just as well as the airport was, well, chaos would be the best description. Queues everywhere and zero organisation. We had about 15 minutes to spare by the time we’d got it all sorted. A bit too tight for us! That said, we had a nice flight, with good views of the Lakes and volcanoes and arrived in Punta Arenas at lunch-time. Not warm, but not cold, so fine. Our drive in passed an odd black boat that Steve thought most interesting. The hotel, Chalet Chapital, was a family affair. You buzzed to go in and everything was locked behind you (don’t know why, the town felt really safe). Some spoke zero English but it wasn’t a problem because they just fetched a younger member who did! Big rooms, quiet and comfy. However, definitely lunchtime, so we walked down to the Plaza (5 minutes) and straight into the recommended restaurant of La Luna. Great find! La Luna, Av O’Higgins http://www.laluna.cl. Now the interesting thing about La Luna is their enthusiasm to get their patrons to amend their large maps, and walls (ceilings, posts, balcony, stairs....) with whatever is at hand. You could mark your place of origin on a map, or add a small signature to something and stick it on the wall, or sign a banknote from your country and pin it up. Didn’t matter what, just the main idea was to record your stop. So, we wrote on a 20p Royal Mail stamp and put that up. Job done. Now food, which was Kingfish and Conger Eel (and very tasty) washed down with Shackleton Ale (of course). La Luna badged it’s own beer, but it was courtesy of the most southern beer company in the world; the Austral, founded 1896 (as Polar Beer).65f65070-9547-11eb-9f5b-2b785810fe8d.png
After lunch we headed down to the Magellan Strait and found a bucketload of birds. A brief walk along the coast and it began to rain harder so we headed back and found the Naval Museum (built by Bonifetti 1908-10 as the Magellanes Naval station). Cheap and more interesting than expected. There was loads on the exploration of Tierra del Fuego, especially Magellan’s voyage, the history of the Chilean navy and, of course, Shackleton. More interesting, in a way, was the story of Pardo. Luis Pardo Villalon (born Santiago 1882, died 1935) was captain of the Chilean steam tug, the Yelcho, which rescued the 22 stranded crewmen of Shackleton's ill-fated polar expedition, from Elephant Island in 1916. It was Shackleton's 3rd attempt to get a Chilean boat to help rescue his crewmates and a very difficult crossing. Pardo was given a hero’s welcome but was a quiet man who did not relish the attention. He even turned down a monetary reward from Britain, saying it was only his job. The highest point on Elephant Island is named after him. https://www.interpatagonia.com/puntaarenas/naval-maritime-museum.html
When we came out the rain had almost stopped, so we went to have a look in the Plaza Munoz Gamero (aka Plaza des Armas). When Punta Arenas was founded as a military and penal settlement in 1848 this space became Plaza Esmeralda and was used for grazing. In 1851 a released prisoner, Lieutenant Cambiaso, started a mutiny and killed governor Gamero. A later governor, Oscar Viel, rebuilt the burnt city in 1867 and named the square after Gamero. It now became a free port. By 1890 the city had 1800 inhabitants and between 1891-5 neo-classical buildings by wealthy pioneers Jose Nogueira, Sara Braun and Jose Menendez appeared. French architect Numa Meyer built the Braun Palace, the Braun-Blanchard building and the Bank of Tarapaca around the square. In 1920 a wooden kiosk was removed from the square’s centre and a monument erected to honour Don Hernando de Magallanes (Magellan) by Chilean sculptor Guillermo Cordova. As we’d looked earlier we knew the Palacio Sara Braun would now be opened, so we knocked on the door and were let in. We noticed that one figure’s foot (under the words Tierra del Fuego) was shiny from everyone rubbing it (to ensure they returned one day).

The Braun family lived and worked in Punta Arenas. Close to the Plaza, in addition to the cathedral, the residence of the governor, the traditional Cabo de Hornos Hotel, are the Sara Braun Palace and the José Braun-Menéndez Residence, two mansions worth visiting to understand the influence of this family in the origins of the city. Sara Braun came with her parents from Lithuanian Russia in 1874 under Chilean president Perez’s immigration policy (they were Jewish and subject to repeated pogroms). In 1887 she married Portuguese businessman José Nogueira. Amongst other successful business, such as gold exportation and seal hunting, Nogueira was one of the first pioneers in sheep raising and the founder of Sociedad Explotadora de Tierra del Fuego. In 1886, he was granted land of 1 million hectares in the area of Magallanes. His manager was Sara’s brother, Mauricio (Moritz) Braun. Nogueira died of TB aged 48 and left his wife a valuable heritage, which Sara managed. In 1895, the beautiful widow finished constructing the magnificent house her husband had ordered to be built by French architect Numa Mayer. The materials and furniture as well as the exquisite details were acquired in Europe and shipped to Magallanes. The palace was finished in 1905 and features two stories, an elegant façade and a magnificent winter garden with a metallic structure where an ancient grapevine still grows. In the same year, architect Antonio Beaulier began building the Braun- Menéndez Palace, owned by Mauricio, Sara’s younger brother and former manager of Nogueira. In 1895, Mauricio Braun had married Josefina Menéndez Behety, José Menéndez’s eldest daughter and heir. The wedding celebrated by father José Fagnano sealed the three big fortunes of the region, which continued to spread all across Patagonia. Following the trend of the epoch, all materials used from the foundations to the decoration were imported from the old continent. When Sara died in 1955 her nephews inherited and in 1974, both mansions were declared national monuments and in 1983 the descendents of the Braun Menéndez donated the entire building, furniture and ornaments, to the Chilean government. On the first floor there is the music room, the golden hall, the dining room and the billiard room, while on the second floor are the bedrooms and the library. The main façade has a portico with columns that create above on the second floor a terrace bordered by balusters.
We left to walk back to the hotel, stopping at a local supermarket for water.
As it was summer in a southern latitude the days were really long and after a rest we realised it was still light enough for a walk. Accordingly we walked up past the blue British School and British St James church, up several sets of stone steps to the Mirador Monumento de la Cruz. It didn’t look like it was going anywhere interesting after that, so it was back towards the Cerro La Cruz, a 2 minute walk to a mirador over the city and the Strait. A signpost next to it gave the km to all sorts of places around the world, but no places were south! We felt the need for a warm drink, so we walked all the walk back to the plaza and beyond to Cafe Tapiz, an Art Deco beauty. We managed to have a gorgeous hot chocolate before it shut at 8pm. Finally we walked down for an evening ocean walk and were amazed to spot a juvenile penguin swimming around! Then, bed!
Punta Arenas (Sandy Point in English) is the capital city of Chile's southernmost region, Magallanes and Antarctica Chilena. In 1520 Magellan sailed around this area, but did not land, noting the geographical features. Two early Spanish settlements were attempted along this coast. The first in 1584, called Nombre de Jesús, failed due to the harsh weather, difficulty in obtaining food and water, and the enormous distance from other ports. A second colony in 1584, Rey don Felipe, was attempted 80 km south of Punta Arenas. This became known later as Puerto del Hambre (Port Starvation or Famine Port). Spain established these settlements in an attempt to protect its shipping and prevent piracy by English pirates controlling the Straits of Magellan. An English pirate captain, Thomas Cavendish, rescued the last surviving member of Puerto del Hambre in 1587, all the others having starved to death. The English 18th-century explorer John Byron is credited with naming this area Sandy Point. In 1843 the Chilean government sent an expedition to build a fort and establish a permanent settlement on the shores of the Strait of Magellan. It built and commissioned a schooner called Goleta Ancud. Under the command of John Williams Wilson of the Chilean Navy, it transported 21 people (captain, 18 crew, 2 women), plus cargo. The founding took place on 21 September 1843. The fort, Fuerte Bulnes, was well-positioned on a small rocky peninsula, but could not support a proper civilian settlement. With this in mind the Military Governor, José de los Santos Mardones, decided in 1848 to move the settlement to its current location, along the Las Minas river, and renamed it Punta Arenas. Punta Arenas was derived from the Spanish Punta Arenosa, a literal translation of the English 'Sandy Point'. Located on the Brunswick Peninsula north of the Strait of Magellan, Punta Arenas was used by the Chilean government in 1848 as a tiny penal colony and a disciplinary posting for military personnel with "problem" behaviour as well as immigrants. This helped Chile to assert sovereignty over the Strait. During the 1800s, Punta Arenas grew in size and importance due to increasing maritime traffic travelling to the west coasts of South and North America. In December 1851, a prisoners mutiny led by Lieutenant Cambiaso, resulted in the murder of Governor Muñoz Gamero and the destruction of the church and hospital.
The mutiny was put down by Commander Stewart of HMS Virago assisted by two Chilean ships: Indefatigable and Meteoro. Another mutiny in 1877, known as El motín de los artilleros (Mutiny of the Artillerymen), led to the destruction of a large part of the town and the murder of many civilians not directly associated with the prison. The growth of the sheep farming industry and the discovery of gold in the late 1800s/early 1900s, as well as increasing trade via sailing ships, attracted many new settlers, especially from Croatia and Russia and the town prospered. Between 1890-1940, the Magallanes region became one of the world's most important sheep raising regions, with one company (Sociedad Explotadora de Tierra del Fuego) controlling over 10,000 km2 in southern Chile and Argentina. The headquarters of this company and the residences of the owners were in Punta Arenas. Punta Arenas harbour, although exposed to storms, was considered one of the most important in Chile before the construction of the Panama Canal. It was used as a coaling station by the steamships transiting between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Today it is mostly used by tourism cruises and scientific expeditions. The city was populated by many colonists from Spain and Croatia in the mid-19th century and many of their descendants still live there. Other national ethnic groups represented are German, English, Italian, Swiss, and Irish. Croatian immigration to Punta Arenas was a crucial development in the region of Magallanes and the city in particular, reflected in the names of shops, streets and many buildings.
The city was officially renamed Magallanes in 1927, but in 1938 was changed back to "Punta Arenas". It is the largest city south of the 46th parallel south. As of 1977 Punta Arenas has been one of two free ports in Chile. (NB Punta Arenas itself is not a "free port", but outside the city there is a small "zona franca" where certain products can be imported under reduced-tax.) Chile has used Punta Arenas as a base to defend sovereignty claims in the southernmost part of South America. This led, among other things, to the Strait of Magellan being recognised as Chilean territory in the Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina. The geopolitical importance of Punta Arenas has remained high in the 20th and 21st centuries because of its logistic importance in accessing the Antarctic Peninsula. Punta Arenas has been nicknamed "the city of the red roofs" for the red-painted metal roofs that characterised the city for many years. Since about 1970 the availability of other colours has resulted in greater variety in the characteristic metal roofs. Some 50% of the population of Punta Arenas are ethnic Croats. Chile's principal oil reserves are located here, along with some low-grade coal. Since the Falklands War, when transport ties were severed between the Falkland Islands and Argentina, Punta Arenas has become a major outside link to the archipelago Punta Arenas is among the largest cities in the Patagonian Region, with a population of 127,000. It is 1,418 km from the coast of Antarctica. The Magallanes region is considered part of Chilean Patagonia. Magallanes is Spanish for Magellan, and was named for Ferdinand Magellan. The city proper is located on the northeastern shore of Brunswick Peninsula. Except for the eastern shore, containing the settlements of Guairabo, Rio Amarillo and Punta San Juan, the peninsula is largely uninhabited. The municipality of Punta Arenas includes all of Brunswick Peninsula, as well as all islands west of the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego and north of Cockburn and Magdalena channels. The largest islands are:
� Santa Inés Island
� Desolación Island
� Dawson Island (pop 301)
� Aracena Island
� Clarence Island (pop 5)
� Carlos Island
� Wickham Island
Due to its low latitude, Punta Arenas has a sub polar oceanic climate bordering on tundra. The seasonal temperature in Punta Arenas is greatly moderated by its proximity to the ocean, with average lows in July near -1 °C and highs in January of 14 °C. Rainfall is plentiful in April and May, and the snowy season runs from June to September. As in most of Patagonia, average annual precipitation is quite low, 380 mm because of the Andean rain shadow. Among Chileans the city is known for its strong winds (up to 130 km/h). City officials have put up ropes between buildings in the downtown area to assist pedestrians with managing the strong downdrafts created in the area. Punta Arenas has been the first significantly populated city in the world to be directly affected by the thinning in the ozone layer. Its residents are considered to be exposed to potentially damaging levels of ultraviolet radiation.

Early history (pre-1540)
It is possible to classify the indigenous people into 3 major cultural groups
- northern people, influenced by pre-Incan cultures.
- agrarian Araucanian culture, who inhabited the area between the river Choapa and island of Chiloé
- Patagonian culture of various nomadic tribes, fishermen and hunters.
- far south groups in the southern tip and Tierra del Fuego archipelago in much smaller numbers

4. Tierra del Fuego (Land of Fire) archipelago off the southernmost tip of South America, across the Strait of Magellan consists of one main island, Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, 48,100 km2, and many smaller islands, inc Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez Islands. The southernmost extent of the archipelago is latitude 55S. Settlement by Europeans and the displacement of the native population began in the late 19th c, at the height of the Patagonian sheep farming boom and local gold rush. During the second half of the 19th century both Chile and Argentina attempted to claim the archipelago based on de jure Spanish colonial titles. Salesian Catholic missions were established in Río Grande and Dawson Island and Anglican missions by British colonists in 1870 at Ushuaia on Isla Grande. Thomas Bridges (1842–98) learned the language and compiled a 30,000-word Yaghan grammar and dictionary while he worked at Ushuaia. An 1879 Chilean expedition by Ramón Serrano Montaner reported large amounts of gold in the stream/river beds of Tierra del Fuego and prompted a gold rush 1883-1909. Numerous Argentinians, Chileans and Croatians settled, leading to increased conflicts with native people. Julius Popper, a Romanian explorer, was one of the most successful entrepreneurs in the region. Granted rights by the Argentine government to exploit any gold deposits he found in Tierra del Fuego, Popper was a central figure in the Selk'nam Genocide.
There were two main groups of indigenous people in the far south, the Selk’nam (and a smaller related group, the Haush) and the Yaghan. These were two quite distinct peoples, having arrived from the Patagonian plains and the west coast respectively.
-Yaghan (aka Yagán, Yahgan, Yámana, Yamana, Tequenica) are regarded as the southernmost peoples in the world. Their traditional territory includes the islands south of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, extending to Cape Horn. They were the first settlers of Tierra del Fuego and have been there for more than 10,000 years. They probably migrated to Isla Grande using a land bridge available more than 12,000 years ago, but which disappeared after the end of a small Ice Age. From there they navigated by canoe to Navarino Island and other islands. They created settlements in the coastal terraces on Navarino, building circular huts in the middle of ring middens. Archaeological sites with characteristics of their culture have been found at locations at Navarino Island. The name Tierra del Fuego is from the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan. Sailing for the Spanish Crown, in 1520 he was the first European to see these lands. He believed the many fires (fuego in Spanish) of the Yaghan, visible from the sea, were by "Indians" waiting in the forests to ambush his armada, whereas they were in fact to keep warm. In 1525 Francisco de Hoces realised that Tierra del Fuego was a set of islands rather than part of Terra Australis. Robert FitzRoy, captain of HMS Beagle in 1828 set off on a survey voyage. In 1830 the ship's whaleboat was stolen by ‘Fuegians’, and in a month of fruitless searching to recover it he took guides and then prisoners who mostly escaped, eventually taking a young lad and girl hostage. A week later he took another 2 youths, including "Jemmy Button" (whose Yaghan name was Orundellico). As it was not possible to put them ashore, he decided to "civilise the savages." Jemmy Button was paid for with a mother of pearl button, hence his name. It is not clear whether his family willingly accepted the sale or he was simply abducted. The names given to the natives by the crew were York Minster, Jemmy Button, Fuegia Basket (girl) and Boat Memory. The original names of the first three were, respectively, el'leparu, o'run-del'lico and yok'cushly. Boat Memory died of smallpox, and his Yahgan name is lost. FitzRoy taught them English and took them to England. One man died, but the others were presented at court in London in 1831. On the second voyage of HMS Beagle, the three ‘Fuegians’ were returned to their homeland. They impressed Charles Darwin with their behaviour, in startling contrast to the "primitive" Fuegians he met when the ship reached their native lands. A mission was set up for the 3 Fuegians. When Beagle returned a year later, its crew found only one, and he had returned to his tribal ways. He still spoke English, assuring them that he "had not the least wish to return to England" and was happy to live with his wife, in what the English thought a shockingly primitive manner. In 1855, a group from the Patagonian Missionary Society visited Wulaia Bay, Navarino Island, finding Jemmy still had a good grasp of English, but in 1859, another group of missionaries was killed at Wulaia Bay by the Yaghan, supposedly led by Jemmy and his family. In early 1860, Jemmy visited Keppel Island and gave evidence at the enquiry into the massacre, held in Stanley, denying responsibility. In 1863, the missionary Waite Stirling visited Tierra del Fuego and re-established contact with Jemmy; from then relations with the Yaghan improved. In 1866, after Jemmy's death, Stirling took one of Jemmy's sons, known as Threeboy, to England. Yaghan moved on a seasonal basis, living largely on fish and shellfish. Navarino has one of the most dense archaeological concentrations in the world, due to the fact that the nomadic Yahgan set up numerous settlements, and the island was almost undisturbed by outsiders until the late 19th century. Although called Fuegians until the 19th century, the term is now avoided as it can refer to any of several indigenous people of Tierra del Fuego. Some may still speak the Yahgan/Yamana language, considered a language isolate; but most now speak Spanish. Cristina Calderón, who lives in Chilean territory, is the last full-blooded Yahgan. The Yaghan were traditionally hunter-gatherer nomads, who travelled by canoe between islands to collect food; the men hunted sea lions, while the women dived to collect shellfish. In 1871, Anglican missionary and linguist Thomas Bridges established a mission at Tierra del Fuego; he and his wife raised their family there. He had learned the language when he lived on Keppel Island (Falklands) and compiled a 30,000-word dictionary of Yaghan-English. His second son, Lucas Bridges, also learned the language. In his 1948 book, he writes that in Yaghan, their name for themselves was yamana (person- plural= yamali(m)). The name Yaghan (originally and correctly spelled Yahgan) was used by Bridges as a short form of Yahgashagalumoala (‘people from mountain valley channel’ -oala= men, the singular being ua). It was the name of the inhabitants of the Murray Channel area (Yahgashaga), from whom Thomas Bridges learned the language. The name Tekenika, first applied to people in Hoste Island, means, "I do not understand" (teki- see -vnnaka have trouble doing) and was evidently the answer to a misunderstood question. Despite the extremely cold climate, Yahgan wore little to no clothing. They survived the harsh climate because they:
- kept warm huddling around small fires, including in their boats.
- used rock formations to shelter from the elements.
- covered themselves in animal grease.
- evolved higher metabolisms over time, allowing them to generate more internal body heat.
- had a natural resting position of a deep squat, reducing their surface area and helping to conserve heat.
The Yaghan may have been driven to this inhospitable area by enemies to the north. They were famed for their complete indifference to the bitter weather around Cape Horn. Although they had fire and small domed shelters, they routinely went completely naked in the frigid biting wind of Tierra del Fuego. Women swam in 4 °C waters hunting for shellfish. They were often observed sleeping in the open, unsheltered and unclothed, while Europeans shivered under blankets. Research shows their average body temperature was warmer than a European's by at least 1 °C. Mateo Martinic records 5 groups of Yahgan people: Wakimaala (shores Beagle Channel, Yendegaia-Puerto Róbalo, Murray Channel); Utumaala (Puerto Williams/ Picton Island); Inalumaala (Beagle Channel/ Punta Divide-Brecknock); Ilalumaala (south west islands, Cook Bay-False Cape Horn); Yeskumaala (Islands around Cape Horn). A significant Yaghan archaeological site from the Megalithic (middens) period has been found at Wulaia Bay c10,000BC. The Yahgan were estimated to number 3,000 in the mid-19th century. The Yaghan were decimated by infectious diseases and suffered disruption of their habitat in the late 19th c when waves of immigrants came for the gold rush and a boom in sheep farming. They did not understand the British concept of property, and were hunted down by ranchers' militias for the offense of "poaching" sheep in their former territories. In the 1920s some Yahgan were resettled on Keppel Island in the Falklands in an attempt to preserve the tribe, but they all died. The second-to-last full-blooded Yaghan, Emelinda Acuña, died in 2005. The last full-blooded Yahgan is "Abuela" (grandmother) Cristina Calderón, who lives in Chilean territory, the last native speaker of the Yahgan language. Following contact with Europeans, the native Selk'nam and Yaghan populations were greatly reduced by persecution by settlers, infectious diseases, and mass transfer to the Salesian mission of Dawson Island. Despite the missionaries' efforts, many natives died. Some of the few remaining Yaghan have settled in Villa Ukika in Navarino Island; others are scattered across Chile and Argentina.

-Kawésqar (Qawasqar, Kawesgar)/ Alacaluf, (see under Torres del Paine)

Ferdinand Magellan (Fernão de Magalhães) c.1480–1521 was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies 1519-22, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano. Born into a Portuguese noble family, Magellan was a skilled naval officer selected by King Charles I of Spain to search for a westward route to the Maluku Islands (Spice Islands). Commanding a fleet of 5 vessels, he headed south through the Atlantic Ocean to Patagonia, passing through the Strait of Magellan into a body of water he named the "peaceful sea" (modern Pacific Ocean).
The captain of the Nao Victoria mutinied in Puerto San Julian (Argentina), but was killed by Duarte Barbosa on Magellan’s behalf. Barbosa was made the new captain. The Santiago was lost in a storm. They continued past 52°S latitude on 21 October 1520, and the fleet reached Cape Virgenes (the start of Tierra del Fuego), concluding they had found the passage, because the waters were brine and deep inland. Four ships sailed through the 600 km long passage that Magellan called the Estrecho de Todos los Santos (All Saints' Channel), because the fleet travelled through it on All Saints' Day, now named the Strait of Magellan. The San Antonio deserted and headed back to Spain. The remaining carracks (a recent Portuguese invention), Concepcion, Victoria and Trinidad (the flagship) entered the South Pacific on 20th Nov. Magellan named the waters the Mar Pacifico (Pacific Ocean) because of its apparent stillness. Magellan and his crew were the first Europeans to reach Tierra del Fuego just east of the Pacific side of the strait. However on reaching the Philippines the Battle of Mactan left Magellan and many of the crew dead. As there was not enough crew for 3 ships the Concepción was burnt. Reduced to Trinidad and Victoria, the expedition fled west to Palawan and reached the Spice Islands in 1521. The two remaining ships, laden with valuable spices, tried to return to Spain. However, as they left the Spice Islands, the Trinidad began to take on water. The crew concluded that Trinidad would need to spend considerable time being overhauled, but the smaller Victoria was not large enough to accommodate all the surviving crew. As a result, Victoria with some of the crew sailed west for Spain. Several weeks later, Trinidad departed and tried to return to Spain via the Pacific. This failed when the Trinidad was captured by the Portuguese and wrecked in a storm. Thus only the Victoria returned home (via the Indian Ocean) to complete the first circuit of the globe. Of the original 237 men only 18 returned. The Magellanic penguin is named after him, as he was the first European to note it. Magellan's navigational skills have also been acknowledged in the naming of objects associated with the stars, including the Magellanic Clouds and the Martian crater of Magelhaens.
Punta Arenas seafront looking right and left, Plaza de Armas with statue to Menendez and the monument to Magellan

The Far South
The far south (Chile Austral) extends from 42° south latitude to Cape Horn, and includes the Andes and South Pacific. In the northern part of the far south, there is still plenty of rainfall. The summer months average 206.1 mm, whereas the winter months average 300 mm. The area generally is chilly and wet, and houses a combination of channels, fjords, snow-capped mountains, and islands of all shapes and sizes within a narrow space. The southern part of the far south includes the city of Punta Arenas, which, with 125,000 inhabitants, is the most southern city in Chile. It receives much less precipitation; its annual total is only 438.5 mm, little more than Valdivia receives in June alone. This precipitation is distributed evenly throughout the year, with summer receiving 31 mm and winter months 38.9 mm, some of it in the form of snow. Temperatures are colder than the rest of the country. The summer months average 11.1 °C, and the winter 2.5 °C. The virtually constant wind from the South Pacific Ocean makes the air feel much colder. The far south contains large expanses of pastures often used for raising sheep, though overgrazing is an issue in some areas. The area's other main economic activity is oil and natural gas extraction around the Strait of Magellan.
Imperial Cormorant and Dolphin Gull

This strait is one of the world's important sea-lanes because it unites the Atlantic and Pacific oceans through a channel that avoids the rough open waters off Cape Horn. The channel is perilous and Chilean pilots guide all vessels through it.
Detail of birds, the seafront in evening, Patagonian Crested ducks and young Magellanic penguin!

Posted by PetersF 12:09 Archived in Chile Tagged chile punta_arenas sara_braun Comments (0)

Chile : Patagonia I

Arrival and walk on the W trail; Torres del Paine + Glaciar Grey. Puente Negro, Nordenskjöld and Sarmiento Lookout, Lake Pehoé, Salto Grande waterfall, Lago Grey, Grey Glacier boat, Southern Patagonia Ice Field.

22nd Feb Transfer to Hosteria Las Torres, Torres del Paine; semi-private with Lunch at Cerro Negro Ranch.
23rd Feb Full Paine + Glaciar Grey. Puente Negro, Nordenskjöld and Sarmiento Lookout, Lake Pehoé, Salto Grande waterfall, Lago Grey, Grey Glacier boat, Southern Patagonia Ice Field.
24th Feb Horseback ride Lago Nordenskjöld/ Mt Almirante Nieto
25th Feb Laguna Amarga stromatolites, Laguna Azul, guanacos, Paine waterfall; Lago Sarmiento thrombolites, Paine Massif
26th Feb Patagón, Aónikenk pictographs.
27th Feb Horse ride in Bosque de Lenga Transfer Torres del Paine to Hotel Chapital, Punta Arenas
28th Feb Punta Arenas- Museo Nao Victoria, seashore, Salesian museum

22nd Feb Transfer to Torres del Paine

We were collected from our hotel at Punta Arenas by the Torres del Paine (pronounced Pie-nay as we were told several times) minibus and as there was only one other couple with us, from Australia, we spread out. We quickly left Tierra del Fuego area and headed into open scrub land, punctuated by small lakes.
There was little sign of habitation, other than a few farm buildings and we began to see a lot more wildlife, both domestic (mainly sheep) and wild (mainly guanaco, rhea, birds and foxes). After a while we passed through a small village and then several hours of nothing until we got to a typical Patagonian ranch, Estancia Cerro Negro (Black Mountain ranch) for lunch. The ‘Black Mt’ it refers to is actually the result of forest fires! Interestingly many ranches in Patagonia span both Chile and Argentina, and at one point we were less than 1 mile from the border. At the ranch, one of the largest in Patagonia, we took a tour of the original farm (which they have recently converted into a museum). The museum was basically formed when the matriarch Amor Eliana died in 2011 and the family, who are VERY influential in Patagonia, decided to change her house into a museum, preserving 1940s ranch life. It was clearly a family home, combined with an area for admin and nothing had been upgraded since the 50s. The old telephone, ledgers and even furniture was most interesting. The guide was happy for us to touch anything- refreshing. After the tour we went next door to the newly built restaurant for an excellent lunch, commencing with pisco reservado (45%) mixed with lime, a salsa starter, lamb main and a volcano pud, all with wine on tap. After lunch we watched a sheep shearing demonstration, impressively he did the whole sheep in 4 1/2 minutes!
The hotel in Las Torres was founded by the Kusanovic family. Antonio Kusanovic Jersic arrived in Chile from Croatia in 1906 aged 15, and purchased the estancia in 1944, breeding his won livestock. His son, Antonio Kusanovic Senkovic, born 1926, bought Cerro Paine ranch (now Las Torres hotel) in the 1970s. In the 1980s, Antonio and his wife Eliana Marusic, hosted trekkers and decided to establish a hotel at Las Torres. They how live in a new house towards the road, which we saw as we drove in. The ranch covers 6000 h of pampas with c3,000 sheep and 300 cows. The sheep are sheared once a year and produce 4.5 kg of wool each! A skilled shearer, like José Luis Emmott who we watched, can shear up to 250 a day! Impressive. The sheepskin is then graded, from fine to top notch. When we rubbed it the natural lanolin oil on our fingers was quite strong.
Then it was back on the minibus to continue through to our hotel. It was a drive through Puerto Natales, a medium sized town and the only town in Patagonia, through another small village and on towards the park entrance.
We began to see larger lakes; passing right alongside Lago Figueroa, until we stopped at Lake Sarmiento viewpoint.
The sunny day was perfect; the iconic towers of rock were reflected in the turquoise blue water while condors and vultures flew above us. Soon after we arrived at the park entrance and took the road to the private part of the park (owned by our hotel). We crossed the Black Bridge on now rugged roads and our view of the mountains was amazing as the weather was wonderful. 10 minutes later we arrived at the front of our hotel. Cerro Paine Ranch is 4000 hectares and the only private property within the National Park. It includes Hotel Las Torres Patagonia, on an strategic point at the start of the trail to the base of the Torres, at the foot of the majestic Nieto mountain creating a beautiful natural landscape. In the early 90s, as more tourists started arriving in Torres del Paine, and motivated by the incredible beauty of the landscape, Antonio with his wife Amor Eliana Marusic, decided to build 9 rooms with a small restaurant. They called this project “Hosteria Las Torres” (nowadays Hotel Las Torres Patagonia). After the death of Antonio in 1997, his wife took over and after her death in 2011 their four children Liliana, Mauricio, Jose Antonio and Vesna, have developed the hotel.
The single floor hotel fitted perfectly into its surroundings and had an amazing view of the Horns of Torres mountain. They were really welcoming and explained how it all worked before giving us the room key. Super room, at the back, great view, unusual birds parading next to our window. 66bb0000-9547-11eb-9d92-95150438e6c7.png
We decided to go for a walk as we had plenty of time before dinner (and we had eaten very well for lunch anyway), so we set off down the famous W trail towards Laguna Inges. Flora and feathered fauna are a highlight of this hike. It starts along part of the “W” Trail before veering off south. Along the way, we saw birds, flowers and shrubs. A brief sojourn on the shore of Laguna Inges gives a good view of Monte Almirante Nieto rising to the north and Lake Nordenksjöld to the south. This excursion is perfect for a short walk of 1.5 - 2 hrs. The entire hike falls within the boundary of the Hotel Las Torres estancia (ranch). A nice walk over several bridges and rivers, before we returned to the hotel, checked our tours for the week and went to the bar for a drink (we decided we HAD to try the Chilean speciality, the terremoto or earthquake. This is sweet white wine, Pipeno or Chicha with pineapple ice cream and grenadine. You are supposed to feel a “tremor”, then order a smaller second one, a “repeat” for the aftershock!.
Then a snack of a pizza (between 2 as they were HUGE).
Roosting Cinerous Harrier

23rd Feb Torres del Paine. Puente Negro, Nordenskjöld, Sarmiento Lookout, Lake Pehoé, Salto Grande waterfall, Lago Grey, Grey Glacier boat, Southern Patagonia Ice Field.
We woke surprisingly early, but not a problem as breakfast started early too. At 8.40 we headed to the meeting room to be collected by our guide for the day. The hotel hires students in the summer with an interest in wildlife or geology and our guide (who was studying zoology in Santiago) was excellent- her knowledge was great. The drivers of the minibuses were also good, acting as wildlife spotters and stopping for photo opps. Today was a whole day trip, called Full Paine and Glacier Grey (1A) and designed to see as many major attractions as possible. We collected our lunch (in a bespoke bag, posh) and set off out of the ranch and down to the Paine River and the Black Bridge (Puente Negro). Originally the only way across the river to the ranch, it is now only suitable for pedestrians and a new car bridge is next to it. It was still a bit misty, so the mountains were less visible, although I was lucky to spot a small nest of rare Yellow-nosed Field Mice (Laucha de nariz amarilla/ Abrothrix xanthorhinus), a long haired mouse brilliantly adapted to the steppe.
Then back on the bus and out of the ranch into the main park, past the offices and up across the rugged landscape took us past folded mountains, twisted and layered, to Sarmiento Lookout over Sarmiento Lake (named after Spanish explorer Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa. The sun came out at this point and illuminated the lake, giving a beautiful view of the white carbonate thrombolites. Another drive took us to Nordenskjöld Lookout (over Lago Nordenskjöld) and Lake Pehoé, and up to the car park for a walk to Salto Grande waterfall. The waterfall connects two lakes, Pehoé with Nordenskjöld via Paine River (and also Skottsberg Lake). The water change from green at Nordenskjöld, become aerated and are blue by the time they reach Pehoé. We could see the catamaran crossing Pehoé. Behind us we could see the Valle del Francés, in the heart of Torres del Paine. To access it you board the catamaran Hielos Patagónicos near Pudeto Ranger Station and cruise across Lake Pehoé to Paine Grande.
Lake Sarmiento, Lakes Nordenskjold and Pehoé, Salto Grande Falls
Vallé Francés has a steep trail through lenga woods and a rocky path above the treeline. Roughly 2.5 km up is French Glacier coming down from Mount Paine Grande, with the Cuernos peaks rising behind. We walked across the obvious lava field to a high rocky outcrop over the river. The mists swirled around the Torres (Towers) and Cuernos (Horns), giving glimpses of Vallé Frances and several glaciers. As we walked back we heard a bang and saw a huge avalanche down French Valley. French Valley is a natural basin ringed by the black slate “horns” of the Cuernos del Paine.
This area of the park is called Pudeto and has see two devastating forest fires, both started by irresponsible campers. In 2005 a Czech camper’s stove got knocked over in the wind in a non- camping zone and the surrounding area quickly caught on fire. The blaze went on for weeks and only stopped because of heavy rainfall, after destroying 160 km2 of the park. The tourist was made to pay a small fine and the Czech government have been donating money to the park ever since. In 2011 a second devastating fire was caused by an Israeli tourist’s irresponsible behaviour, when he tried to burn toilet paper and it escaped his hands, starting what became one of the greatest disasters to hit Torres del Paine Park. The fire affected 40,000 acres, just over 7% of the park, inc French Valley, Lake Pehoé and Salto Grande It raged for 9 days before the fire brigade, military and CONAF brought it under control. The greatest impact was the loss of native vegetation. It grows very slowly, taking up to 200 years for some species to reach maturity. Replanting is not an easy job, as they have to be protected from harsh conditions, mainly colds winter, dry summers and strong winds, and also from guanacos that enjoy a meal of Lenga or other native tree or bush while these are young. As the region mainly lives off tourism, the closure of the park meant a loss of an estimated US$2 million if not more. We drove back down to Lake Pehoé (toilets), and back up to enjoy the lake and the famous Horns reflected in it from a vantage point, and even the luxury hotel on an island (with an access bridge). A fossil of an ammonite revealed that this was once a seabed. On the bluff overlooking the lake we found a Calafate bush. The Box-leaf Barberry (Calafate) Berberis buxifolia is a typical evergreen shrub found in clearings in forest steppe and Southern Beech (Nothofagus) trees. It has yellow flowers and edible fruit that are small bittersweet blueberries, used for making jam and liqueur. It is the symbol of Patagonia, with legends stating that those who eat Calafate return to Patagonia at some point in their life. Then we drove to Pehoé campsite for our al fresco gourmet lunch with wine.
As we were waiting a Dwarf Armadillo (Piche patagónico) Zaedyus pichiy came bustling past us. This small dark brown armadillo has strong claws and a thick shell, measuring 30cm long with a 120mm tail.
A small flock (and flocks can reach 1000) of Upland Geese (Cauquén común) Chloephaga picta grazed nearby. These wild Magellanic geese nest near water and sleep in lakes safe from predators. The males are white, the females brown. Apparently the males die if their partner dies, but the female finds a new mate.
Further on a Southern Crested Caracara (Caracara plancus) was strutting his stuff! This is a colourful bird of prey in the Falcon family. A friendly cinclodes came to see us as did a zorzal, and we even spotted the iconic Patagonian sierra finch in the bushes (pic 1). The Patagonian Sierra Finch (Cometocino Patagónico) Phrygilus patagonicus is a bright yellow and grey bird who nests in thorny Calafate bushes in forest areas to protect their offspring from predators. The Blackish cinclodes (Cinclodes antarcticus, pic 2) is a passerine bird belonging to the ovenbird family Furnariidae. It is native to the southern tip of South America (aka tussock-bird). It is very tame and will approach humans. The sexes are similar and their plumage is almost entirely dark brown. The throat is slightly paler with some buff speckling, there is a hint of a pale stripe over the eye and there is a faint reddish-brown bar on the wing. The bill is quite long, stout and slightly down curved with a pale yellow spot at the base. The song and calls are loud and high-pitched. The trilling song may be uttered from a perch or in flight. A Zorzal or Magellan austral thrush (Turdus falcklandii magellanicus pic 3) is a medium-sized thrush limited to southern South America, similar to the European blackbird, also of the genus Turdus, with a yellow bill and feet, and streaked throats. In Chile the austral thrush lives in a variety of habitats from Nothofagus forests to agricultural lands.

We collected everything up and started the drive to Lago Grey, past Estancia Lazo ranch (aka Hostería Mirador del Paine), through lush lenga forest along the shore of Laguna Verde (Green Lagoon) and Laguna Honda (Deep Lagoon) before veering somewhat south for a 360° view of the Paine Massif (north), Lago Toro (biggest lake) and the Patagonian pampas (southwest). Once at Lake Grey we parked outside the hotel to wait for our catamaran trip. The hotel windows and balcony gave a great view of the Cerro Paine Mountains, Lago Grey, the catamaran and a few stray icebergs. After a half hour wait it was our group’s turn to walk down to the landing stage, collect our life jackets and board the RIB. This took us to a sandy spit where we embarked on the catamaran (100 person capacity). Once we were all on board we sped off towards Glacier Grey, part of the massive Southern Patagonia Ice Field. As we went we passed more and more, bigger and bigger icebergs before collecting a second set of people. As the cliffs grew higher, more impressive waterfalls thundered down until we arrived at the first section of glacier. Very blue, very beautiful. As we were in a specially strengthened boat we were able to push through the ice field and get remarkably close. We slowly sailed along all three tongues of the glacier, punctuated by rock outcrops. The journey was narrated, but as most of us were on deck, we didn’t hear that much. Still, the beauty spoke for itself! Having seen all three ‘tongues’ of the glacier, punctuated by outcrops of fossilised mud, folding into wave upon wave of stone, we stopped briefly for the crew to collect some small icebergs to furnish the ice in our drinks! After an hour around the glacier we began our journey back in the cabin and settled down to the free pisco sour. The whole trip took a surprising 3 hours!
The Southern Patagonian Ice Field, located at the Southern Patagonian Andes between Chile and Argentina, is the world’s second largest extra-polar ice field. It is the bigger of 2 remnant parts of the Patagonian Ice Sheet, which covered southern Chile during the last glacial period, called the Llanquihue Glaciation in South America. The Southern Patagonia Ice Field extends from 48° 15' S to 51° 30' S for approx 350 km, and has an area of 12,363 km2, 9,700 km2 in Chile and 2,500 km2 in Argentina. The ice mass feeds dozens of glaciers, including Upsala (765 km2), Viedma (978km2)in Argentina, andPío XI/ Bruggen Glacier (1,265km 2), the largest and longest outside Antarctica), O’Higgins (820 km2), Grey (270 km2) and Tyndall (331 km2) in Chile. The glaciers going to the west flow into the Patagonian fjords to the Pacific, those going east flow into the Patagonian lakes and the Atlantic. There are two known volcanoes under the ice field; Lautaro and Viedma. Due to their inaccessibility they are among the least researched volcanoes in Chile and Argentina. Fifty km of the Chile/ Argentina border, between Mount Fitzroy and Cerro Murallon, remain undefined on the ice field. This Southern Patagonian Ice Field section of the border is the last remaining border issue between Chile and Argentina. In 1998, both governments agreed that the line would run along the high peaks and watershed northward from Cerro Murallon to a point on a line of latitude due west of "Point B" a few km southwest of Mt. Fitzroy. However, they also agreed that final demarcation and exact location there would wait until completion of a detailed 1:50,000 scale map. In 2006 the Argentine Instituto Geográfico Militar edited a map, drawing Argentine claims to the official borderline. After Chilean diplomatic protests the Argentine government withdrew the map and urged Chile to expedite the demarcation of the international border. However, many in Chile consider the border to have been established by the "Laudo of 1902", an agreement signed "in perpetuity" by both countries under British tutelage. The map published by the British Crown, as part of the documentation of the "Laudo of 1902", illustrates a clear demarcation line (from Fitz Roy to Stokes) to the east of Campo de Hielo Sur leaving most of the territory in question in the Chilean side. This is the cartography used by many international map publishers.

On our way back the sun came out (apparently only the 3rd time that SEASON- as it turned out it was unusually pleasant and clear the whole time we were there, giving unusually spectacular views). Our guide decided on an unscheduled stop at Lake Pehoé Lookout so we could see it in the sun. The lake is spectacularly turquoise and the striped Horns of Paine were reflected in it. Although the national park is named for the tallest granite spires, the iconic Lake Pehoé vista isn’t actually of the Torres del Paine, but of the equally majestic Cuernos del Paine, the “Horns of Paine.” Seen from Lake Pehoé, the sharp contact between the two rock types angles upward from right to left because the metamorphic rocks arch over the top of a granite body (aka a laccolith). Finally it was back towards home.
On the way back the driver suddenly stopped as he’d spotted the rare Patagonian Skunk (Chingue) Conepatus humboldtii, and gave us a chance to watch/photo it. It is a solitary, usually nocturnal animal, with extended snout and strong nails. Like all skunks, is famous for the odour it emits when feeling threatened. It measures around 60cm and weighs 2kg. We finally arrived at the hotel at 7.30, so it was lucky we’d booked our dinnertime for 8pm. Great service and nice food (so glad we were no all-inc as their menu was not half as exciting).
Lake Pehoé, Lake Pehoé with Cuernos del Toro, Cerro (mount) Paine Grande from Lago Grey
Glacier Grey, Southern Patagonian Ice field- showing the three ‘tongues’ descending from the glacier into Lake Grey

The landscape and geography make the Cordillera del Paine an emblematic feature of the area. Located at the transition between the Andes and Patagonian steppes, it dominates its surroundings. The Cordillera del Paine stands at the gate of the Southern Patagonian ice field, the third largest ice cap in the world. Archaeological finds show that this remote region was inhabited by indigenous tribes as far back as the sixth millennium BC, although Europeans only explored the Cordillera del Paine from the 1870s. Since then, Swiss, German and British (Welsh) colonists have occupied the region, founding large sheep and cattle farms. Because of the rough climate, farming had considerably impacted the fragile, wild ecosystem. Chile’s government became increasingly aware of the area’s unique value and created Torres del Paine National Park in 1959 (World Reserve of Biosphere by UNESCO in 1978).
Cuernos del Paine. NB ‘frozen’ sinking dark blocks of Cretaceous sediments from the upper contact of the laccolith (white).

Geology: Sea, Magma and Ice The Cordillera del Paine is divided into several mountain groups. The westernmost, Paine Grande is the highest of the range at 2,884m. The most prominent peaks are those of the Cuernos del Paine (Horns of Paine), separated from Paine Grande by the deep glacial Vallé Francés (French Valley). Nestling in the heart of the range, the gigantic natural Torres (Towers) del Paine are the most famous part of the massif. A striking feature of the Horns is the two-toned colour of the mountains. A prominent white band is sandwiched between dark rocks, the contact between them extremely sharp, as if cut with a knife. The dark rocks are Cretaceous turbidites and layered sandstones with local conglomerates deposited in the Magallanes Basin. The white rocks are the result of a widespread (20km3 and 2000m thick) magma intrusion of the Upper Miocene (12.5 Ma=million years ago), injected between the two sedimentary layers of the Cerro Toro Formation, forming a sill. Heat from the granite “cooked” the adjacent mudstone and sandstone, converting them into the dark brown metamorphic rock that crowns the Cuernos, a metamorphic contact aureole. Although the intrusion looks homogeneous, it consists of a suite of igneous (granitic) materials resulting from successive magma pulses of magic to folic composition. A smaller (8 km3) pod of granite was injected below the first one soon thereafter, and finally a third, much larger one (54 km3) completed the laccolith 100,000 years later. The dominant magma body is a granite laccolith (a sub-horizontal intrusion with uplifted overburden). The Torres del Paine intrusion is one of a number of granite intrusions in Patagonia, the most famous of which is the dramatic Fitz Roy-Cerro Torre Peaks in Argentina. The laccolith is clearly visible at the Cuernos del Paine, where both the bottom (lower contact) and roof (upper contact) of the laccolith are perfectly exposed. In the cliffs observe ‘frozen’ falling dark blocks of the laccolith roof embedded in the white granite. The thickness of the laccolith means that the sedimentary host rock has been heated and metamorphosed, so the primary sedimentary layering is no longer visible in the vicinity of the intrusion.
Icebergs on Lago Grey below Paine Grande.
The laccolith is adjacent to the modern Patagonian Ice Cap, and the top stands just over 3,000m elevation, high enough to spawn massive glaciers during the Pleistocene ice ages. Those glaciers quarried the modern peaks out of the laccolith. The glaciers stripped the contact aureole’s relatively less resistant metamorphic rock off the top of the laccolith but left a few scraps on the Cuernos. Geologists call these isolated bits of metamorphic rock on top of a granite intrusion roof pendants, and the Cuernos are among the world’s most majestic examples. However, these amazing geo-logical features would have never been exposed without the combined contribution of Andean tectonics and glacial erosion. Originally deposited at the bottom of the sea, the sediments now crown nearly 3,000m-high peaks, the associated uplift being the result of the Andean orogeny. Evidence of the orogeny is prominent in the landscape, including stunning folds and faults. Finally, during the last glaciations, glacial erosion carved deep valleys that bisect the Paine laccolith. The retreat of the glaciers offers this unique heritage. In 2014, the current glacial retreat uncovered a dinosaur graveyard in Cretaceous sediments, with 46 nearly complete skeletons of ichthyosaurs. The sandstone at Glacier Grey is part of the 92-million-year-old Punta Barossa Formation, whose sediments were produced by erosion of the mountains being built along the active Andean sub-duction zone to the west. The subduction zone trench lies west of the Chilean coast, but a period of very active mountain-building loaded the edge of the South American Plate on the opposite (east) side of the Andes from the trench creating a deep marine basin in the Torres del Paine region. Submarine landslides delivered sand and mud to the basin, gradually depositing a series of repeating layers collectively called turbidites. The sand settled out of the turbid water first, followed by the mud. The resulting orange (sandstone) and grey (mudstone) stripes in the Punta Barossa Formation outcrops at Lake Grey provide a textbook example of turbidites, recording deposition by one such submarine slide after another.
Cretaceous turbidites, Cerro Toro Formation.
Another spasm of plate compression began c75 million years ago, causing the Andean thrust front to migrate eastward, and creating a new thrust fault near Lake Grey. This fault squashed the local Punta Barossa Formation turbidites into tight folds. These contorted turbidites are on display next to the Lake Grey parking at the start of the hike up to the Ferrier Lookout point.
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Posted by PetersF 13:08 Archived in Chile Tagged animals birds glacier chile patagonia lago iceberg grey paine torres pehoe cuernos sarmiento Comments (0)

Chile Patagonia II

Horseback ride Lago Nordenskjöld/ Mt Almirante Nieto; Laguna Amarga stromatolites, Laguna Azul, guanacos, Paine waterfall; Lago Sarmiento thrombolites, Paine Massif

24th Feb Horseback ride Lago Nordenskjöld/ Mt Almirante Nieto

We woke to a beautiful rainbow across the mountain behind us, very pretty and atmospheric. We had already been told that our horse ride to Lago Nordenskjöld had been moved from the afternoon to the morning, so we arrived at the meeting room at 9am. We went to their stables, just a 2 minute walk and found our horses; mine was called Tomato! The kit was similar to ours, apart from the stirrups (much larger and worn lower than we would) and a simpler bridle (you are meant to hold the reins in one hand only and use it to turn left or right; you other hand sat on your hip, saddle, or whatever). The banquerana (a girl) had a typical ‘saddle’ of a folded blanket held on by what can only be described as a belt and two ropes to hold a metal circle for a stirrup.
Baqueanos have a uniform of beret, baggy trousers, neckerchief, sash and all-purpose knife. As we headed along the guide explained about the horses and baqueanos at the lodge. Learn Patagonian cowboy ways with the baqueanos, who lead the Hotel Las Torres rides and look after the horses/ stables of Estancia Cerro Paine. During your time with these local vaqueros (descendants of horsemen who came to work in this remote region over 100 years ago), learn about their clothing, saddles and horse tack, and get a chance to share a mate (herbal tea from yerba mate leaves). Enjoy a typical breakfast of sopapiillas (type of bread) with pebre (Chilean condiment) and chat about Patagonian culture. The baqueanos demonstrate how to saddle and shoe a horse, and ride. If you have riding experience you can join them looking for the tropilla (horse herd). The herd is in 5 groups and each baqueano/a is responsible for 2 groups (2 or 3 baqueanos each group). They can choose 1 personal horse for each of their 2 groups. Towards the end of the 19th century, Torres del Paine started being explored by ‘Baqueanos’ (horsemen from southern Chile, commonly translated as Chilean cowboys). The Baqueanos were based around Punta Arenas and began exploring the region extensively in the 1870s on hunting quests, selling animals skins and feathers to colonials. One of the most famous Baqueanos was Santiago Zamora, known as ‘el baqueano Zamora’. Originally from central Chile, Zamora arrived in Punta Arenas in 1868 and integrated himself with colonists in the region. He spent his life exploring the region north of Punta Arenas, including Torres del Paine, acting as a guide for travellers and explorers. Other notable Baqueanos include Francisco Poivre and Augusto Guillaume (French), Guillermo Greenwood (English) and Avelino Arias, Luis Navarro and Juan Alvarado (Chilean). We rode through the bridleway of the W trail, crossing streams and rivers, past Nordenskjöld lake’s gorgeous north shore and up to a mirador on Monte Almirante Nieto, the glacier and snow-covered mountain that anchors the southeastern extreme of the Paine Massif.
Nordenskjöld Lake at the foot of the Paine Massif is named after Otto Nordenskjöld (1869-1928), a Finnish-Swedish explorer who probed much of the Antarctic, Greenland, Chile and Peru in the early 20th century. We saw quite a number of birds, attracted by the myriad mosquitoes, including a Chilean Swallow (Golondrina Chilena) Tachycineta meyeni. The glossy blue-grey bird had a white underside and forked tail. It’s very common around Patagonia. Another bird we spotted was the Rufous-collared Sparrow (Chincol) Zonotrichia capensis, again a common bird in Central and South America. It was grey & black with red breast and white throat. The last bird was considerably less common despite its name, a Common Diuca Finch (Diuca) Diuca diuca. This small bird lives only in high altitude scrubland. It has a plump grey body, white throat & white tail patch. We took a similar route back, but but diverted through the tussock grass before getting a (short) canter back to the stables in time for lunch. As we untacked the baqueanos were cooking and when I asked what it was they explained about sopapillas (fried bread filled with ground meat) and cooked me one without me even asking. We ate the hot food with a chilli type salsa, very nice. Apparently hardly anyone ever asks them about their lives, so they were surprised we were interested.
Lunch in the bar was lovely and we had the whole afternoon to wander, so we took ourselves off on a trip to see wildlife and generally just enjoy the sunshine. The area around here was mainly Pre-Andean shrubland (also seen on our trip up Ascencio Valley), although we also visited the Magellanic Deciduous Forest (on our horse ride on the 27th), Patagonian Steppe (on our Laguna Azul trip on the 25th) and the Andean Desert (on our Patagon trip on the 26th).

Torres del Paine has four different types of vegetation:
● Pre-Andean Shrubland - Evergreen shrubs like the edible calafate
● Magellanic Deciduous forest - Deciduous Antarctic Beech trees lining the park’s gorges
● Patagonian Steppe - Desert shrubs and tuft grasses resistant to harsh winds & weather
● Andean Desert - Species tolerant to low temperatures and high precipitation
1. Pre-Andean Scrubland
This type of vegetation is found on river/ lake edges, particularly Sarmiento Lake, Salto Grande and Nordenskjold viewpoint. Plants in pre-Andean scrubland have adapted to save water and survive fierce Patagonian winds.
From our walk on 21st Feb
Chilean Firetree (Notro) Embothrium coccineum pic 1
Small evergreen tree which blooms every spring with deep red flowers. Grows up to 15m tall and 20cm diameter. The bark is famous for its beauty and ease of working.
Box-leaf Barberry (Calafate) Berberis buxifolia pic 2. A typical evergreen found in clearings in forest steppe and Southern Beech trees. It has yellow flowers and edible small bittersweet blue berries, used for jam and liquor. Prickly Heath (Chaura)
Gaultheria mucronata pic 3. An evergreen shrub native to Southern Chile, growing up to 2m near Southern Beech forests. The edible plum-like fruit (varying red to white) is also used ornamentally.
Holly-leaved barberry (Michay) Berberis ilicifolia pic 4 (the annoying prickly one in our garden) Yellowy-orange flowers, dark shiny green leaves, dark purple berries. Dwarf barberry (Calafatlillo)
Berberis empetrifolia pic 5. Yellowy-orange flowers, fleshier lighter leaves and dark purple berries.
Crimson Spire (Siete Camisas) Escalonia rubra pic 6. Evergreen shrub with white & pink flowers and long fruit capsules.
Porcelain Orchid (Orquide Porcelana)
Chloraea magellanica pic 7. Fleshy green stem, white flowers with green veins and fruit in late summer.
Muddy Shrub (Mata Barrosa) Mullinum spinosum. Shrub with hard branches, sharp leaves and clusters of yellow flowers.
It was a pleasant afternoon walk and we arrived back at the hotel in time for a relax before supper which was in the bar (due to a kitchen problem), but luckily we discovered the Danish string quartet were performing, which made for a nice evening.

25th Feb Laguna Amarga stromatolites, Laguna Azul, guanacos, Paine waterfall; Lago Sarmiento thrombolites, Paine Massif

As usual we met in the meeting room for our morning trip, which was to Laguna Azul (trip 8). As we headed out we saw quite a number of birds of prey, including the Andean Condor (Cóndor Andino) Vultur gryphus. With a wingspan of up to 3.2m, it can fly at altitudes over 4,500m at speeds up to 56kph. They nest in high mountain rocks and circle overhead looking for carrion. Females are smaller than males, both are black and males have a red or black crest. The Lesser Horned Owl (Tucúquere) Bubo magellanicus is smaller than the Great Horned Owl, with grey and brown feathers and two ear tufts. The Black-chested Buzzard Eagle (Águila Mora) Geranoaetus melanoleucus has a powerful build, long broad wings, and can live at high altitudes in the mountain ranges. Finally the Austral Pygmy Owl (Chuncho) Glaucidium nanum has a grey and brown body with white patches, short beak and large yellow eyes.
As before we crossed the Black Bridge and arrived at the CONAF offices, but this time we turned left instead of right. After 15 minutes we came to Laguna Amarga where we saw a small of pink Chilean Flamingo (Flamenco Chileno) Phoenicopterus chilensis. These flamingo are different from the two Phoenicoparrus flamingo species found in northern Chile as they have grey legs with pink knees and a largely black beak. Laguna Amarga is interesting in having rare cyano-bacteria causing stromatolite flock formations. The name Amarga means bitter, which is due to the highly concentrated salts (it is Ph 9.1) in the water (a result of high evaporation). No creatures can live there except the bacteria. The shore was salty white sand, which contrasted to the turquoise blue waters.
Continuing on we spotted a flock of Lesser Rhea (Ñandú) Rhea pennata. These are flightless birds, which spread out their wings when running. Those living on the Patagonian Steppe are known as Lesser Rhea. They were happily grazing around a fresh puma kill! After the inevitable photo opp we set off through the highlands and “desert” towards Laguna Azul. Crossing over a pass we several large guanaco herds. Guanaco or Lama guanicoe are friendly camelids native to South America. They migrate throughout the park in large herds except for lone males ousted from the group by a dominant male during breeding season. They are 1.20m in height and 110-120kg in weight and can spit when feeling threatened. Young (chulengos) are born 11 months after breeding season and stay with the herd for one year. We looked hard for the rare South Andean Deer (Huemul) Hippocamelus bisulcus that live in this far eastern part of the park. Possibly we saw one from a distance, but it wasn’t certain. These deer live in small groups in high mountain forests, feeding mainly on herbs and shrubs. They only reach 85cm tall, and 100kg weight. They feature on Chile's national coat of arms and are endangered with just 100 remaining in the park.

We drove down from here to Laguna Azul, which was very windy today. A herd of guanaco had just arrived to join a herd already there and we watched the two lead males have a fight. We walked along the lake shore, with the view of Torres behind. Gazing from the east, the perspective of famous 3 towers is different from elsewhere in the Park, and more awe inspiring. The towers were originally called “Cleopatra’s Needles” because they resembled the obelisks of ancient Egypt. In fact the wind was so strong the poor Spectacled Ducks (pic 1) were flying backwards! Spectacled or Bronze-wing (Pato Anteojillo) Anas specularis is a Dabbling duck with bronze speculum feathers. The lake had lots of bird life, especially some beautiful Buff-necked ibis (Bandurria) Theristicus caudatus (pic 2). Given their name for the buff coloured neck, they have black feathers, a white patch on the wing and a red bill and legs. We spotted a pair of Black-necked Swans (Cisne de cuello negro) Cygnus melanocoryphus, a pair of Patagonian Crested Ducks (pic 3), which at first I thought were geese, and several South American Snipe (Becasina) Gallinago paraguaiae (pic 4). These small wading birds were hiding from the wind in the rushes. They breed in South America and migrate north for winter. They have long straight bills, short legs and buff coloured feathers. Also in the rushes were Pintails, Coots, and a solitary Grebe.
The sole member of genus Speculanas, a Yellow-billed Pintail (Pato jergón) Anas georgica has a brown head, long yellow bill, light brown body and dark brown outer feather; a subspecie Chilean Pintail also exists. The Red-gartered Coot (Tagua común) Fulica armillata is a large species of coot, 55cm long, black with a red garter separating a yellow beak and yellow forehead shield. The Great Grebe (Huala) Podiceps major is the biggest grebe, reaching up to 80cm long and 2kg in weight, with a red neck, grey face, black back and white underside. After our walk we went back up (while a 3rd guanaco herd was coming down to join the others) towards the Paine River, with views of the Paine Massif. We ended at the spectacular Paine Waterfall thundering around a central rock. The Cuernos shone in the sunshine behind as a beautiful backdrop. Paine River connects most of the lakes and rivers inside the park. The river begins at Dickson Lake and travels 9 km to Paine Lake, where it keeps its name and through Paine Waterfall another 15 km to lake Nordenskjold. From Salto Grande it goes to Lake Pehoé and from here through another fall, Salto Chico, and 6 km more to finish in Toro Lake. The other main river of the park, Serrano River, begins at Toro Lake and flows to Ultima Esperanza gulf. It is the principal fluvial network and natural border of Torres del Paine National Park. Its 38 km long allow and ideal for walking or bird watching.
Laguna Azul (Blue Lagoon) with Steve and with guanaco herd Paine Waterfall
3. Patagonian steppe
The flora in the more rugged steppe (or pampas) area includes desert shrubs and tuft grasses (Coirón) resistant to harsh winds and weather, accompanied by bent-over bushes in pastureland. The steppe is mainly in the Eastern sector of the park in areas where there are no trees due to the poor humidity and harsh winds. Coirón (festuca gracillima rothm) grasses were heavily used by the indigenous people to weave baskets and to help insulate their tents. This tufted or tussock-forming grass (pic next page) is related to rye, and can also cause ergot poisoning.
Characteristic plants of the pampas include:
A. Hotel B. Laguna Amarga C. Laguna Azul
D. Paine Waterfall E. Black Bridge
Black Shrub (Mata Negra) Junellia Tridens pic 1
Forms dense communities in wet areas in the steppe. Petals are white- pink and fruit is capsular.
Fachine (Mata Verde) Chiliotrichum diffusum pic 2. Daisy family. White petals with yellow centre. Flowers were used medicinally by the Patagonian natives due to their antiseptic properties.
Guanaco Bush (Neneo Macho) Anarthrophyllum Desideratum pic 3 Cushion-like shrub in rocky soils in the steppe with red-orange flowers. Streaked Maiden (Campanilla) Olsynium Biflorum pic 4. Herb with flowering stems and white flowers with small yellow fruit capsule.
Lady’s slipper (Capachito) Calceolaria biflora pic 5. Herb with leaves in rosette and distinctive yellow slipper-shaped flowers.
Paramela (Paramela) Adesmia boronioides. Shrub with bright yellow flowers growing in arid and exposed areas of the steppe. Has antipyretic properties.
Purple-spored Puffball (Hongo de polvera)
Calvatia Ciathiformis. Fleshy texture and cracked surface. Edible when young, smooth and purple, but matures to become pear shaped and darker in colour.
The third picture, taken on our way back shows some classic (and often unique) endemic flora including:- (front) Philippiella patagonica, Xerodraba (unique to Patagonia, white flowers), Eriachaenium magellicum (centre) and Duseniella patagonica (yellow flowers). Both Eriachaenium and Duseniella are in the daisy family and are the only ones of their species. All these low growing plants (similar to alpine flowers), are flowering plants producing small-tiny flowers for brief periods when conditions are perfect.
Typical steppe scene by Laguna Azul showing low bushes, tussock type plants and shingle shoreline
Paine Falls; Torres del Paine (Towers of Paine)

The North Tower (left of photo) is 2,260m was first climbed by Guido Monzino (1957), the Central Tower (2,460m) by Chris Bonington (1963) and the tallest (though it doesn’t look it!) South Tower, 2,500m, by Armando Aste in 1954. Our guide said she thought the Salto Grande trip we’d booked for the afternoon would repeat a lot of what we’d already seen, so when we got back we asked if we could change. As it turned out, the other people who’d booked had already cancelled, so it was no problem. We asked if we could go to Lake Sarmiento instead and as we had a snack lunch in the bar, he confirmed that this was fine. So, after a bibulous lunch we met our (reticent) guide and drove to the drop off point for the hike to the lake. Now, to say our guide was a man of few words would be pushing it. He maybe said 10 sentences in the whole trip and boy he took no prisoners. He marched straight off across the steppe and down quite a steep slope to the first lake. It wasn’t that we couldn’t keep up, because we could, it’s just maybe 1 or 2 photos would have been nice. Geology and flora are the focus of this 2.5 hr trek around the Park’s largest lake, named after Spanish explorer Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa (1532–92), author of The History of the Incas, a detailed description of Inca history, culture, religion. Gamboa was the first to attempt to colonise the Magallanes region at the tip of Tierra del Fuego (at Hunger Port, now one of the most tragic stories of Patagonia). Start with a 40-min drive to a trailhead, then hike down a steep valley with small flowering bushes. At the lake are thrombolites, calcium carbonate formations whose coral-like shapes are ancient fossils formed 7000 years ago by bacteria growing in saline lakes. Thrombolites were microbial communities and the first photosynthesizers on earth- Lago Sarmiento is one of the few places in the world they are found. The glacial lake of Sarmiento is surrounded by hills of turbidites from the 80-million-year-old Cerro Toro Formation. The white ring which surrounds the lake consists of nodular limestone which is secreted by lake-dwelling microbial thrombolites. At Lake Amarga (which we also visited), the white ring is even clearer, but these microbial communities secrete stromatolites. Thrombolites and stromatolites both formed extensively early in Earth’s history. The cyanobacteria which created thrombolites and stromatolites also injected the first oxygen into Earth’s atmosphere billions of years ago; allowing animals to evolve, although the animals kindly paid them back by eating them! The specific conditions required for thrombolite formation are rare today, so they are only found in only a few places worldwide. Thrombolite formation requires an abundance of calcium and carbonate ions in the water and here the weathering of surrounding marine turbidites fulfils that requirement. A series of glacial moraines cut Lake Sarmiento, Armarga and 5 smaller lakes off from the regional drainage network which ensured they were hydrologically isolated, preventing ion dilution. Finally, the rate of evaporation exceeds precipitation into the lake; this leads to sufficient ion concentration to trigger microbially mediated limestone precipitation. Lake Sarmiento and the others are in the rain shadow of the Andes. Oxygen isotope ratio analysis of Sarmiento’s thrombolites since glacial retreat 20,000 years ago, proves an average lake temperature 1,200 years ago of 9.3° C. In the Little Ice Age of 183 years ago (proving it wasn’t just in Europea) it cooled to 7.7° C.
Stromatolites are Earth's oldest fossils (except for some nucleic acid sequences and possible molecular fossils) and show biological activity spanning thousands of years. They are fossil evidence of the prokaryotic life that even today dominates the biomass; maintaining the homeostasis of the earth, and rendering the biosphere habitable as they maintain/ recycle oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. Humans are basically water, proteins and prokaryotic bacteria (the ration of bacteria to cells 10:1). Eukaryotic animals, evolved from a prokaryotic world, have retained in their mitochondria the cellular machinery to power cells (endosymbiosis) from prokaryotes.
The definition of stromatolites is still tenuous, but they are basically laminated rock formed from the growth of cyanobacteria (aka blue-green algae). Cyanobacteria’s metabolic byproduct, oxygen, pumped enormous amounts of poisonous (to them) oxygen into the atmosphere, paving the way for aerobic-based life eukaryotic to evolve. Stromatolites, thrombolites and oncoids (algal biscuits/ Girvanella) form microbial mats in limestone environments by trapping communities of bacteria and algae. Stromatolite-building communities include the oldest fossils, dating back 3.5 billion years; we assume a more diverse range of species with differing metabolic needs. Competition for the limited resources (and varying degrees of motility) led to the creation of intricate structures. Stromatolites are the only fossils from the first 7/8th of earth’s history, some 4 billion years of geological time, once occupying every environment, but becoming rare in the Archaean Era.
Archaea, Eubacteria, and Eukaryotes appeared in the Archaean Era, and microbial mats contained representatives of all three. Just how and when the split into these 3 main branches happened is uncertain; of the prokaryotes, Archaeans and Eubacteria it’s unclear which evolved first, but they did exchange genes, which makes it even harder to decide. While formation by colonies of cyanobacteria is the primary mechanism for modern stromatolite formation, in the ancient Archaean and early Proterozoic, it is unlikely to have been the only one. All prokaryotes, Eubacteria and Archaeans, reproduce by cell division and are extremely slow to evolve. Some microfossils suggest primitive Eukaryotic microorganisms possibly appeared prior to 3.5 billion years ago, and by the end of the Archaean, 2.5 Ba, all three domains of life (Eubacteria, Archaea, Eukaryotes) co-existed and were already quite diverse. Ascribing all stromatolite formation in the Archaean and Proterozoic to cyanobacteria, is probably incorrect. Molecular fossil traces suggests that micro-organisms with nuclei appeared before 3.8 Ba. Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya Stromatolites may hold the key to determining how and when the tree of life branched into 3 domains; Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. It is very unclear as to when micro-organisms with advanced photo-synthesis first appeared, or when the eukaryotic nuclear genome became a chimera with contributions from both Archaea and Bacteria. Certainly photosynthetic cyanobacteria became very common in the Archaean, as shown by the rusting of the earth and oxygenation of the atmosphere. Stromatolitic structures can be explained by both biogenic and abiotic processes. Regardless of when cyano-bacteria appeared, they comprised the predominant form of life on earth for 2 billion years, consuming CO2 and releasing O2 by photosynthetic metabolism. Creation of the modern atmosphere powered the Cambrian Explosion and evolution of aerobic life. During Precambrian times, bacterial mats formed large platforms, depleting CO2 in the surrounding water and precipitating calcium carbonate into sediment trapped within sticky layers of mucilage that cyano-bacteria form as a film as protection from ultraviolet radiation. These layers grew one above the other, with the living bacterial colony on the top. The resulting layers assume a variety of shapes growing upward toward the sunlight. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic bacteria (domain Eubacteria). Eukaryotic algae did not appear until 1.5 Ba, 2 billion years after stromatolites, so stromatolite formation by algae was insignificant until the Phanerozoic or Late Proterozoic. Environments where modern stromatolites are found are often have hypersaline, high alkalinity, low nutrients, high or low temperatures, and strong wave actions; mainly areas that are undesirable or intolerable.
Grasses and Sarmiento Chico in the eastern corner of the park
We only have a sketchy understanding of the paleoenvironments in which stromatolites formed in Precambrian time.
It was sunny, but windy as we walked along the lake edge, and very beautiful with bright blue water, white shining crystal shores and red cliffs. The wind was strong enough to whip up water devils high in the sky. We then hiked back through marsh land to the bus and back to the hotel. The evening meal was a bit of a disaster as they had overbooked, and after waiting +30 minutes for our order to be taken we found a waiter. As it happened they were taking a survey in the restaurant that night and we mentioned the issue (and how good the guides and drivers were) and were promptly given drinks vouchers. We got to the bar in time for the quintet.

Posted by PetersF 13:22 Archived in Chile Tagged mountains animals birds chile patagonia torres_del_paine Comments (0)

Chile Patagonia III

Patagón, Aónikenk pictographs. Horse ride in Bosque de Lenga, Punta Arenas

26th Feb Patagón, Aónikenk pictographs.

Meeting in the room again (with its informative wall panels) we boarded the minibus for our Patagón (3) excursion. This took us to the southeast corner of the park, past Laguna Amarga, to the trek drop off point. This hike was through “puma alley” and was filled with animals. We saw both the Red and Grey Fox out hunting. The Red Fox (Culpeo) Lycalopex culpaeus is the largest fox in Chile, leads a solitary life and hunts at night. It can grow up to 120cm, including the tail, and weigh up to 12kg. The male provides food for the mother and cubs. The Grey fox (Chilla) Lycalopex griseus is smaller than the Red Fox, measuring 80-90cm and up to 4kg. Both parents look after cubs. There were plenty of guanacos, many with young. We watched them make easy work of jumping fences. It was also clear who the sentinels were, watching for puma from a high point. We saw some guanacos running VERY fast, but no obvious puma. Puma Puma concolor patagonico aka cougar, panther or mountain lion, the golden-coated puma lives a solitary life and is rarely seen although numbers are slowly increasing. It generally hunts at night, grows up to 270cm and males weigh up to 90kg while females reach 60kg. As we walked the promised eclipse was a bit of a damp squib, but the fact it was a clear sunny day more than made up for it.
Grey Fox in grass, young Grey Fox, adult male Red Fox
After walking past rust red rocky outcrops, through some open grassland and on past a small marshy lake (Laguna Goic), we began to ascend a rough mountain (or large hill). At the summit was an amazing view of the Cuernos, Cerro Paine mountains and terrain. In an overhang, which would have been good as a shelter, was a set of red ochre petroglyphs created by the the Aónikenk people of Patagonia. Residents for 7,000 years, the Aónikenk were called Patagones (Big Feet) by Spanish settlers, who thought them giants. The petroglyphs were two hands, a man, guanaco, and what “experts” said was an arrow, but was quite obviously a condor! Having enjoyed the view in the sun (highly unusual in the park), spotted some pretty birds, insects and even a large spider. As we drove back to the hotel the clear skies gave the most magnificent views of the Horns and the Towers. We had a small late lunch, some cocktails and a rest, then went for a walk. Steve set his heart of the Ascencio Valley walk (this is most definitely a mis-description as it was basically a mountain path). The view across the lakes and mountains as we ascended was spectacular. We got half way to Chileno, but the light was beginning to go, so we thought we'd better head down.
We could see the base of the Torres (towers) from a viewpoint beside a glacier-fed lagoon with views straight up the rocky peaks. Interestingly, with this walk we had finally experienced all four of the zones of vegetation in Patagonia, and as it was summer we had a great view of them flowering too. From the hotel climb into Ascencio Valley through beautiful lenga forests to stony heights, across ice-cold mountain streams and rocky glacial moraines before reaching Base Las Torres; elevation change: 1000m. When we got back the hotel we were told our transport to Punta Arenas was at 2pm, so we booked a second horse ride for the morning. An early dinner and chill out at the bar completed the day.
4. Andean Desert.
Species in the Andean high desert are tolerant to low temperatures and high precipitation but vegetation is underdeveloped due to harsh weather conditions. growing on rocks are characteristic of the landscape and vegetation decreases with altitude due to the adverse weather conditions. Cushion Plant (Llaretilla) Azorella Trifurcata Herb with dense shrubs and yellow flowers, found in a wide range of habitats including at high altitude. The Devil’s Strawberry Gunnera Magellanica Found on hillsides at over 600m above sea level, with bright red fruit.
Stunted trees and shrubs

27th Feb Horse ride in Bosque de Lenga
Transfer Torres del Paine to Hotel Chapital, Punta Arenas
This was our last day here, so it was nice to get into the saddle again for a ride through the aboriginal forest. The Bosque de Lenga (7) was a trip to learn about Patagonia’s famous lenga forests, a horseback ride or hike follows part of the Paine Circuit trail around the east edge of the massif. The final destination is the ancient lenga forest. One of Patagonia’s iconic trees, Nothofagus pumilio thrives in areas with low temperatures and heavy snow. Lenga woods provide a habitat for many animals; spot Magellanic woodpeckers, Austral parakeets, Chilean flickers and other small birds. Be on the lookout for pumas (Andean Lion) that roam the forest. The trail features great views of Laguna Azul and Cerro Paine on the east side of the massif. This excursion is good for windy days because the trees block the wind. The trip also gave us a chance to see some unusual fungi as we climbed out of the forest to Mirador D’Agostini, and Huella del Puma, with views back across the valley of granite towers, glaciers, and alpine lakes.
Chilean Flicker (Pitio) Colaptes pitius Left - Dark brown and white with distinctive feather pattern. Lives in Nothofagus forests. Magellanic Woodpecker (Carpintero Magellánico) right Campephilus magellanicus. One of the world’s largest woodpeckers. Males and females largely black & males have red crest.
2. Magellanic Deciduous forest
Deciduous forest lining the park’s gorges and hillsides, receiving over 600mm of rain p.a. Found in Grey lake and glacier, Laguna Azul, Laguna Amarga and French Valley. Home to several Southern Beech tree species (nothofagus), namely Lenga (Nothofagus pumilio), Coihue (Nothofagus betuloides) and Ñirre (Nothofagus antártica). The Southern Beech Lenga Nothofagus pumilio can reach up to 30m (though stunted when in Andean desert) to -30oC Grows in abundance only in southern Chile. Wood used for construction due to its strength and durability. Southern Beech Coihue Nothofagus betuloides. Evergreen tree reaching 25m, with glossy leaves. Grows in humid areas. Its wood is used for furniture. Hardy to -20oC. Southern Beech Ñirre Nothofagus antártica. Deciduous tree, growing up to 20m (stunted in Andean desert). Native to southern Chile and Argentina and one of the southernmost trees on earth.
Winter Bark (Canelo) Drimys Winteri
Sacred tree of the Mapuche, Chile’s indigenous population. Reaches up to 20m with shiny green leaves and slender truck. Native to the Magellanic temperate rainforests of Chile, where it is a dominant tree. Found below 1,200 m between latitude 32° and 56° south. In its southernmost range it can tolerate temperatures to -20 °C. The flowers are white with a yellow centre, and have a great number of petals and stamens. The fruit is a bluish berry. When Sir Francis Drake sailed round the world in 1577-80, one of the four ships was the Elizabeth, captained by John Wynter; the ships separated in a storm and Wynter turned back. He sent a boat ashore to find medicinal herbs and returned in 1579 with a supply of Drimys bark. For centuries before vitamin C was isolated, "Winter's Bark" was a preventive and remedy for scurvy, sustaining Captain Cook and his crew. The naturalist, Johann Forster, accompanying his voyage, was the first to officially describe and name D. winteri
Dog Orchid (Palomita) Condonorchis Lessonii pic 1
Herb with erect stems and three white leaves arranged in a whorl with white inner petals dotted with purple.
Old Man’s Beard (Barba de Viejo) Usnea barabata pic 2
A species of Lichen which grows on bark and branches on Southern Beeches. Like other lichens it is a symbiosis of a fungus and an alga. In Usnea, the fungus belongs to the division Ascomycota, while the alga is a member of the division Chlorophyta.
Darwin’s fungus (Pan de Indio) Cyttaria Darwinii pic right
Parasite which appears on Southern Beech branches and can lead to the breaking branches or stems in strong wind. Certain species of Cyttaria are used in gastronomy
Chinese Lantern (Farolito Chino) Misodendrum punctulatum
Grows like mistletoe on various species of Southern Beeches. Colour changes from green to yellow to red brown throughout its life cycle. Aka false mistletoe. It grows as a hemiparasite; partially photosynthetic but also obtains nutrition from its host. The photo below shows it growing off a beech.
Fuchsia (Chilco) Fuchsia magellanica. Shrub with narrow branches and pendant-shaped red flowers with purple petals.
Rainberry (Miñe/Frutilla de Magallanes) Rubus Geoides Small herb plant with white flowers and red Magellanic raspberry fruit hidden by leaves.
When we got back we bought some water and sandwiches from the kiosk before loading our bags onto the minibus. We drove out of the park and stopped for coffee at the picturesque hamlet of Cerro Castillo, before driving to Puerto Natales. This time we drove into the town itself so we got to see it properly. Puerto Natales is the capital of the commune of Natales and the province of Última Esperanza, one of the four provinces that make up the Magallanes and Antartica Chilena Region. Puerto Natales is the only city in the province. It is located at the opening of Última Esperanza Sound and was originally inhabited by the Kawésqar or Alacaluf people and the Aonikenk or Tehuelche people. The first European to discover the area where the city is located was Juan Ladrillero, a Spanish explorer who was looking for the Strait of Magellan's western passage in 1557. The city was formally founded under the government of Ramón Barros in 1911. Nowadays, one of its most important industries is tourism although the cattle and aquaculture industries are also significant.

Half day 1 Salto Grande 2. Patagon 3 Lake Sarmiento 4 Laguna Inges 5 Lago Nordenskjold 6 Serro Paine 8 Laguna Azul 7 Bosque de Lenga horse
9 Banqueano de la Patagonia
Full day 1A Full Paine + Glacier Grey 2 Las Torres Sendero del Ascencio 3 Huella del Puma 4 Valle Encantado 5 Los Cuernos 6 Valle Bader
7 Valle del Francés 8 Mirador Grey 9 Sendero de los Lagos

Early history (pre-1540)
About 10,000 years ago, migrating groups settled in the fertile valleys and coastal areas of Chile. Pre-Hispanic Chile was home to over a dozen different Amerindian societies. The current theory is that the initial arrival of humans to the continent took place along the Pacific coast southwards in a rapid expansion preceding the Clovis culture, backed by findings in Monte Verde archaeological site, which predates the Clovis site by thousands of years. Settlement sites from very early human habitation in Chile inc the Cueva del Milodon and Pali Aike Crater's lava tube. The history of inhabitants in Torres del Paine dates back to over a thousand years ago, when the first indigenous groups arrived. Europeans had set up camp by the late 19th century and this marked the end of the indigenous era and the start of Chilean ‘Baqueano’ exploration and tourism, with tourists ranging from British aristocrats to scientists and missionaries. In 1959 the National Park was created, and in 1970 named Torres del Paine. Today the park is managed by Chile’s National Forestry Service (CONAF). Other ancient indigenous Patagonian inhabitants include the nomadic hunters Selk’nam (Ona) and Yaghan (Yamana) people, who canoed between islands to collect food. Both the Selk’nam and Yaghan moved further south to Tierra del Fuego, probably pushed out by Telheuche tribes (to which the Selk’nam were related). It is possible to classify the indigenous people in Chile into 3 major cultural groups:
-northern people, influenced by pre-Incan cultures.
-agrarian Araucanian culture, who inhabited the area between river Choapa and Chiloé island
-Patagonian culture of various nomadic tribes, who were mainly fishers and hunters.
-far south groups in the southern tip/ Tierra del Fuego archipelago were in much smaller numbers
1. The Inca Empire briefly extended into northern Chile, where they collected tribute from small groups of fishermen and oasis farmers but were unable to establish a strong presence.
2. The Araucanians, a fragmented society of hunter-gatherers/ farmers, the largest group in Chile.
3. In the latter half of the first millennium the Tehuelche (Aonikenk) people arrived in Patagonia as nomadic hunter- gatherers. As they migrated through Patagonia they saw the silhouette of an incredible rock formation in the distance and called it ‘Paine’, meaning ‘blue’ (the predominant colour). Tehuelche was the name given by the Mapuche to these people inhabiting the Pampa on the northern coast of the Strait of Magellan.
European sailors called them Patagones (bigfeet), endowing an aura of a mythical land of giants. Although the Tehuelche had a common way of life and language, dialects and local customs were different among the subgroups, including the Aonikenk who inhabited the Magallanes region, the Gününa’küna inland in the Aysen region, and Mecharnúek’enk, close to Chiloe Island, who had only indirect contact with other Tehuelche groups. According to archaeological findings, Tehuelche presence can be traced back 4,500 years in sites that display very similar technology, diet and housing patterns. Two distinct stages of Tehuelche cultural development can be distinguished.
1. The pedestrian stage, noted in the reports of early European travellers. Tehuelche numbered c5000, divided into nomadic groups of up to 100. They led a nomadic life, hunting guanaco and ñandús (rhea) using dogs, bows/ arrows, and bolas (spherical stone balls). They had temporary tent-like structures, for an extended family, formed by a wooden frame with waterproof hide, initially of guanaco, and later horse. Guanaco were used for food and the skins for clothing, blankets, dwellings, etc. Before the introduction of the horse, Tehuelche society was the family unit, with a dozen of these forming a band. The multi-family grouping dwelt in villages, with a chief called a Gownok or Yank, whose main task was to choose and organise the camp location. Although Tehuelche society was matrilocal, males held the power within each group.
2. The horse stage. The 18th C acquisition of horses revolutionised their hunting, vastly extending their range. The wild horses they captured were descendants of animals that had escaped or been abandoned by colonists in the 16th century, reproducing and spreading throughout Patagonia. Tehuelche groups swelled to 400 -800 riders, bringing them into contact with neighbouring groups more frequently. Despite the harsh climate (average winter temperature - 2oC and summer highs of 40 oC) the increased contact tended to homogenise the native way of life across Patagonia, with the Mapuche exerting a strong influence. Tehuelche ate horsemeat and drank mare’s blood as well as using horse bones/ skin to make tools and build shelters. Horses enabled them to make contact with neighbouring Mapuche tribes and European settlers, establishing trade. Horses were an important status symbol, and when a tribesman died, his horses and dogs were killed. Northern Tehuelche used the tendons, and skin of horses to produce household items and cover their dwellings, replacing guanaco skins. The horse tack they manufactured became increasingly elaborate, evolving into a major art form. Guanaco remained important for meat bones and skin, used to make clothes and blankets. Tehuelche often painted their bodies for ritual ceremonies. Their guanaco-skin capes (kais/ quillangos) were decorated inside with bright, geometric patterns (points, circles, keys, etc), simple figures or hand prints. They gathered edible and medicinal plants, and seafood from the coast. The women were responsible for domestic tasks (collecting firewood and water), erecting the shelters, raising the children, curing the skins, decorating the blankets, bags, and belts. The men hunted and made tools and weapons, but spent quite a lot of time eating, resting and playing games. They played a card game called berrica/ birk, which they probably learned from sailors on passing ships. They made cards of guanaco skin decorated with their own motifs and dice from the bones of huemul. In the 17/18th C, ethnic Tehuelche groups of the pampas, Puelche, Ranquel and northern Aonikenk, made contact with the Mapuche, trading in Mapuche textiles from Nahuel Huapi. Tehuelche contact with Europeans developed from occasional bartering to regular trade in established locations, such as Dinamarquero. The Tehuelche (or Aónik’enk) language, and its many dialects, dwindled with the Araucanisation of Patagonia, as the Mapuche language (Mapudungan) was adopted by many Tehuelche tribes 1550-1850. Indeed, 'Tehuelche' itself is a Mapudungan word, meaning ‘brave people’. Tehuelche were considered giants by Spaniards during Magellan's voyage of 1520. The name Patagonia comes from the word patagón used by Magellan to describe the native people whom his expedition thought to be giants; the Tehuelche average height of 1.80 m comparing to 1.55 m of an average Spaniard. The advent of Patagonian sheep farming in 1876 had a detrimental impact upon the Tehuelche as new ranches encroached on their territory, and traditional hunting grounds were transformed into pasture. In 1878, the Argentine government began to grant concessions to colonists. By 1884/5 ranches were established in the southern part of Tehuelche territory and large tracts of land were fenced off for sheep ranching. Between 1876-93, the indigenous people saw most of their territory occupied by colonists, as the traditional hunting grounds also happened to be the best pastureland. This forced the Tehuelche to break into smaller units and adapt to this new configuration. They were decimated by new diseases and alcohol and their exclusion from their traditional lands, for which they could not obtain legal title as they were not deemed citizens with rights. The Conquest of the Desert in the 1870s led by General Roca, aimed to assert Argentinian dominance in Patagonia, and resulted in the killing of over 1000 native people, and driving thousands away. Some Tehuelche communities abandoned their traditional nomadic life to collaborate with the settlers, rearing sheep and trading horses, establishing strong links with Welsh settlers. By early 1890 there were 6 autonomous groups, each with 300-400 members. These amalgamated into larger units, and by 1893 there were just 3 Tehuelche communities. Two were forced to abandon their nomadic way of life as the guanaco population was reduced by the expansion of sheep ranching. The Tehuelche established trade relations with the colonists, choosing to breed and trade horses, raise sheep and cattle, or take paid employment in nearby ranches. Though some Patagonian communities still claim Tehuelche heritage today, diseases, alcohol, and the loss of land, contributed to the ultimate extinction of the Tehuelche tribes. The last Gününa’küna (northern Tehuelche) speaker died in 1960, and there are only a few Aónik’enk (southern Tehuelche) speakers today in Patagonia, the last pure-blood dying in 1982.
Aonikenk mythology
The Aonikenk have an almighty creator god called Kooch, who created the stars and the forces of nature. Day and night was explained as the constant pursuit of the Sun-Man and Moon-Woman, each fighting for the right to control the day. The Aonikenk believed in malicious spirits, Gualichu, associated with the night, who were able to adopt the appearance of humans. The evil Azshen could also appear human. He was the owner of Calafate and lived deep in the forest close to the lakes. When in human form he entered human bodies and created disease. Miap invoked panic and brought bad luck. He lived in caves and appeared in the form of a cold wind after sunset, when he would put out fires and kill birds. Miap’s twin, Kelenken could transform into a raptor and spread infection. Noshtex was a principal figure in Aonikenk mythology. He was an evil being who kidnapped and raped Cloud-Woman, bringing floods. Kooch was angered and decreed that if Cloud-Woman had a son he would be powerful enough to complete the creation of the universe. She bore Elal, who created humans, but Elal’s conception so enraged Noshtex that he ripped out Cloud-Woman’s womb in an attempt to destroy the foetus. The Aonikenk saw this event reflected in crimson sunrises. Noshtex’s plan to kill the infant Elal was frustrated by his grandmother who hid him on a secret island in the east where Kooch lived with all the world’s animals. Living with Kooch gave Elal inspiration and when he grew up a swan carried him to the summit of Chalten Mount (Fitz Roy), accompanied by some animals who fed and protected him; Guanaco, Nandu, Condor. He was further helped by Sun and Moon. Elal defeated Noshtex. He met Karro, the morning star, and their union created the human race. Facial and body paints were applied daily as protection from the elements and for special ceremonies as well as tattoos. People wore hidden amulets and talismans for medicinal magic. Tehuelche performed rituals to celebrate birth, death, marriage, and rites of passage for females were especially important. When a Tehuelche man died, the cadaver was placed a blanket with red clay. On the tomb they erected a mound of stones called a chenque and afterwards never again pronounced the deceased person’s name. In some regions, individuals were buried in rocky shelters and covered in red paint.

Kaweskar (Kawésqar, Alacalufes, Halakwulup) were nomadic Patagonians in Torres del Paine. They arrived by canoe in the 15th century, setting up and dismantling semi-circular huts, leaving no trace behind. Fewer than 10 pure-blood Kaweskars remain. Kaweskars, which means 'human' in their language, are sometimes called Alacalufes. Halakwulup is Yahgan for “mussel eater”. There are two theories regarding their arrival in Patagonia:
1. south from the islands of Chiloé
2. north from the islands in the Strait of Magellan
They covered a vast area, from the Guaitecas Islands south of Chiloé to Clarence Island in the Strait of Magellan. Families travelled by canoe and constructed igloo-shaped domes from Oak or Winters Bark covered with seal or otter skins. Occasionally families would join together to eat a whale. Tools, bows, arrows, canoes and shelters were made from wood, stone, whalebone, shell and animal skin. Like the Yahgan, the Kawésqar were a nomadic seafaring (canoe) people.

Their canoes, 8m long x 1m wide, held a family and its dog. Their population never exceeded 5,000. Kaweskar communities had no hierarchy and were formed by self-sufficient families who married for love and practiced monogamy. Their first contact with Europeans came in the 16th century (explorers). By 1880 Europeans had settled in Patagonia in their quest for gold, furs and wool, displacing or slaughtering Kaweskars. Coupled with new diseases, they were almost extinct by the 1920’s. In 1884 George Despard, the adoptive father of Thomas Bridges, an Anglican missionary based in Ushuaia compiled a 1200-word vocabulary for the Kawésqar language. Known tribal names: Adwipliin, Aksánas, Alacaluf, Cálen(ches), Caucahue, Enoo, Lecheyel, Taíjataf, Yequinahuere. They continued a nomadic life until the 1930s, when they were moved into settlements on Brunswick Peninsula and Tierra del Fuego (Wellington, Santa Inés, and Desolación Islands), later moving further south to Puerto Natales and Punta Arenas. In the 1930s the few remaining Kaweskars settled on Wellington Island and today a small group still live on the island in a remote, road-less hamlet, Villa Puerto Eden, accessible only by boat. In 2008 the death of the last Kaweskar-speaker brought a lot of media attention.
In Kawesqar West Patagonia is known as wæs and divided into two sections from east to west: Jáutok (inland channels and land to the east) and Málte (coastal channels and Pacific coast). Within this, the Kaweskar had tribal divisions: Kaweskar of the north (Gulf of Penas-Adalberto Channel) were Sælam; immediate south (Adalberto Channel-Nelson Strait) were Kčæwíte; around Ultima Esperanza were Kelælkčes; and in Skyring-Otway Sounds and Magellan Strait were Tawókser. The groups all had the same lifestyle, although they had a different dialects and vocab, eg in the north, mussel is akčáwe, while in the south it’s qápok. Due to the large area, early explorers thought groups they met in one area were different from those previously met elsewhere, so gave them different names. Also, as explorers came from various European countries, different names were used. Robert Fitz-Roy, exploring Tierra del Fuego in the Beagle, was the first to describe a group of indigenous people living west of the Beagle Channel and Strait of Magellan with the name Alikhoolip. From this various spellings evolved: (h)alikulip, halakwulup, alakulof, alikkolif, alakaluf and alacalufe. Maybe Fitz-Roy heard halí ku(o) halíp (down here), as the people shouted from their canoes up to the deck of the ships. Alternatively the English initially adopted the name Alacaluf/ Halakwulup, used by the Yahgan, a competing indigenous tribe whom he met first. In 1881, European anthropologists took 11 Kawéskar to be exhibited in Paris and Berlin. Only 4 returned to Chile. Early in 2010, the remains of the others were repatriated and the president of Chile formally apologised for the state having allowed these indigenous people to be exhibited and treated like animals.
The Kawésqar supreme being is Xolás, the creator of everything, including traditions and morals and directed human lives. There was a natural order in nature, and any rupture was caused by a spirit, the ajajéma/Ayayema. Illness, bad weather, nightmares, etc were of his making. The ajajéma didn’t bring these because he wanted to hurt humans, but his footsteps caused disturbances as he passed, unaware that humans were there. Kaweskars forbade their children from playing once night had fallen, because the noise could attract the ajajéma. He could take away the os (soul), and leave only the aksæmhar (life force). Dreams were seen as the link between this world and “the beyond”. Kawésqar morality was based on the principle that ‘each person is his own neighbour’. The kalakai, a coming of age ceremony for both men and women aimed to provide moral and practical instruction in the skills an adult would need to live an independent life. Initiation candidates, aged 14-18, gathered with their families in a large dwelling. An individual, usually an elder, was selected to conduct the ceremony, teaching the moral codes handed down by Xolás. The event usually took place when a whale had beached on the shore, providing food for all participants for the ceremony, which could last 6-10 weeks. The Kawésqar also had a secret men-only ceremony, similar to the Yaghan’s Kina ceremony. The Kawésqar’s shaman, the Owurkan, was called upon to cure illness, predict the weather and provide spiritual guidance. An individual close to death was taken to a comfortable place to spend his or her final days. The corpse was wrapped in leather, and buried face down near the dwelling in a grave 20cm deep and covered with branches, leaves and rocks. Their belongings were burned and the burial site avoided. On death, the person would be transformed into a jeksólok (spirit), which would go to hótk'a álowe (beyond the horizon). No missionaries went to West Patagonia. The only member of the Roman Catholic church was Father Torres, who made several journeys in the 1940s, baptised some Kawesqar and made them repeat prayers they didn’t understand, but nobody replaced him once he stopped visiting Puerto Eden.

The first tourist to Torres del Paine was British aristocrat Lady Florence Dixie, who arrived with her group in 1879. Led by Avelino Arias and other Baqueanos, she explored the park and in 1880 published a book ‘Across Patagonia’, detailing her adventures. Her observations of the native people are fascinating, as is her vivid description of her first sight of Torres del Paine. Florence desired escape and her thoughts still resonate, to switch off everyday routine and be immersed in nature. Following the publication scientists came to explore the region, interested in the geography and geology. Otto Nordenskjold, after whom Lake Nordenskjold is named, and Carl Skottberg, after whom Lake Skottberg is named, visited at the turn of the century and made notable discoveries. This era also saw the arrival of missionaries such as the Italian Alberto Maria de Agostini, a passionate explorer and mountaineer who had a good relationship with the native Fuegians. The area continued to be owned by the various landlords of the ‘estancias’ (cattle ranches) until 1959 when the need for land conservation led to the creation of Grey Lake National Park. In 1961 it was extended and in 1970 the 242,242 hectare park was declared a protected area and named Torres del Paine National Park. In 1975 the park administration was taken over by Chile’s National Forestry Service (CONAF) who manage the park today and run its visitor information centres.

The Chonos occupied the islands of Western Patagonia latitude 43°–48° South. This region includes the Chiloé and Chono archipelagos up to Taitao Peninsula and Penas Gulf. These archipelagos were formed from the peaks of the submerged Coastal Mountain Range and are a veritable labyrinth of islands, canals and fiords. The 1047 islands are covered in dense rainforest that makes travel on land difficult, with few beaches for landing. The zone has consistently high rainfall +2000 mm per year and average temperatures of 7°–9o C. The Chonos belonged to the southern canoeist culture and were nomadic seafarers. Their vessels, called dalcas, were central to their way of life and made of three planks bent with fire and formed into a boat shape, with two side planks fitted alongside a longer central plank to form a long, narrow canoe. The planks were sewn together with twisted string made of crushed bark from the bamboo-like culeu plant. The joints were caulked with leaves from the fiaca or mepoa tree and the vessel then covered with maque bark. Their anchors were made of stone and wood. A dalca could hold loads up to 200 quintal (1 quintal= 100 kgs) and 10 crew members, mostly rowers. Sails were used on the boats when the wind was favourable. Early chroniclers mention these vessels, admiring their design and the prowess of their crews. The Chonos divided tasks by sex, with the men responsible for fishing and hunting sea lions, valued not only for their meat but also their fat and oil, from which the Chonos made a special beverage. The men were also responsible for building the group’s huts on land. The younger males hunted birds at night, blinding them in their nests until they fell into the canoes, where they were knocked sense-less. Chono women collected shellfish, both by hand from the seaside rocks and by diving in the ocean. Women divers began their training early, as young as 3 or 4 years old. They collected shellfish in a basket as they swam, holding the handles in their mouths or around their necks. The women also collected seaweed, fungi, eggs and firewood. In the Guaitecas region, the Chonos grew corn (which they used to make a fermented beverage), potatoes and barley, and raised “woolly dogs” (probably guanacos), whose hair they used to make clothes. The Chonos used dogs to help obtain food: some specially trained to dive for fish and chase them into nets held. When a whale beached, the Chonos made use of the meat, skin and baleen. They manufactured spears, clubs and daggers from bone, axes and knives from stone, hooks from wood and nets from the fibre of the quantu tree, as well as blankets and baskets. Historical records mention the occasional use of bows and arrows. Like many tribes in south Chile, the Chonos painted their bodies: They painted their faces red, white and/or black, but used only white paint on their bodies. Chroniclers wrote of woollen or plant fibre tunics, leather or wool capes (probably guanaco) that covered their backs and shoulders; and loincloths of dried seaweed. Sources mention that the women wore skirts of bird feathers tied around their waists. The family was the Chono’s basic social unit within this monogamous and patriarchal culture. The men had great authority over the women. The extended family gathered at coastal camps. Historical accounts mention chiefs or caciques, as elders of the group. As seafaring nomads, the Chonos moved from island to island without having a home base. They spent most of their lives on board their dalcas, moving the entire family to where resources were most plentiful and taking all of their belongings with them. The vessels were dismantled and dragged over land when required. They erected dwellings in the shape of a flattened cone at their temporary camps. These elliptical shaped structures consisted of a series of long, straight branches set into the ground and leaning inward. The branches were tied together at the apex with plant fibres. The Chonos covered the floor of their dwellings with dry branches to keep out the cold, while the structure itself was covered with leaves, skins and bark to keep out the wind. As covering materials were not plant easily obtained, the people took them along in the dalca when they moved. The huts had a single, small entrance, and their size depended on the number of people they housed. The hearth was in the middle to provide heat for warmth and cooking. The huts had no smoke holes, which made them uncomfortable to live in. When a Chono group left a camp, they left the frame in place for future occupants. These temporary camps seem to have been located close to one or more key resources, such as freshwater, and the Chonos used them as a base from which they hunted and gathered resources. Middens have been found at these camp sites due to their frequent consumption of shellfish. Some of these piles of waste shells are up to 100m wide and 4m deep. It is not even known whether the Chono were a single indigenous group or several. Early writers, sailors and missionaries referred to them and left short descriptions of their lifestyle and the vessels they used to navigate the coastal waters. The Chonos are thought to have interacted with the Huilliche people of Chiloé and the Kawashkar further south; some authors suggest that the Chonos were actually a branch of the latter. The first recorded contact between the Chonos and Spanish occurred in 1553. In 1557/8 they were observed and described by the expedition led by Juan Ladrillero and Francisco Cortés Ojeda. Their population was estimated at c1700, more than a few of whom were enslaved to work in the mines of the north by Spanish expeditions that sailed their coastal settlements. This led the Chonos to avoid the more travelled coastal sea routes. Some moved further south into Kawashkar territory, while others found refuge in the Jesuit missions of Chiloé, where a few were baptised in 1608. After he was shipwrecked in the Guaitecas islands in 1741, the English sailor John Byron wrote about the Chonos he encountered and eventually lived with. The last mention of the Chono people was in 1805.

27th Feb Return to Punta Arenas
We left Torres del Paine after lunch and stopped briefly for coffee at Cerro Castillo before dropping a guest off in Puerto Natales. Having driven for a few hours we arrived at a small town called Villa Tehuelches, and stopped for a second drink. Then on for an hour of crossing small rivers and lagunae, before arriving on the shore of the large Laguna Cabeza de Mar. The last stretch took us back to Punta Arenas, where we were dropped off at our hotel. It was a good time for an early dinner at La Luna again, Merluza (hake) followed by a trip to the ocean, where the beautiful sunset gave us a good view of the Tierra del Fuego island.

Posted by PetersF 13:43 Archived in Chile Comments (0)

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